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0000 - Cold Hardiness Observation Master Data


kinzyjr
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Overview

The PalmTalk forums contain thousands of observations on the cold tolerance from a variety of locations and climates.  One of the primary difficulties in determining cold hardiness of a particular species or variety of palm is that observations vary greatly, even at the same temperature in the same location.  Therefore, hardiness can be more accurately expressed as a probability rather than in absolutes.  

The goal of the attached list is to more accurately calculate the probability and degree of damage one could expect from a freeze on a particular species or variety of palm by consolidating the available data into one document.  This list is provided without any warranty or guarantee, expressed or implied.

Several factors can influence the effect of a low temperature on a palm.  These include:

  1. Ultimate low temperature
  2. Duration of the freeze – time below 28F, time below 32F, number of days with low temperatures
  3. Weather before freeze – was it warm and sunny with plants in active growth or were the palms given time to harden off by a slower onset of below average temperatures?
  4. Advective vs. Radiational freeze? – Advective freezes are usually more damaging due to wind chill and less stratification.
  5. Overhead canopy/protective siting – Was the plant out in the open or under cover?  Are there structures or plants being used as windbreaks?  Canopy typically mitigates frost formation during a radiational freeze and windbreaks lessen the windchill effect during an advective freeze.
  6. Frost – did frost form?
  7. Wet vs. Dry – did the freeze come with wet/damp soils from a preceding rain storm or was the ground dry?
  8. Size and overall health of the plant – A healthy, mature palm is usually more likely to survive than a palm that was juvenile or unhealthy.

Another consideration is how long a grower waited after the freeze to report damage.  Sometimes damage will manifest itself weeks or months after the actual freeze.  If a report comes too soon after the freeze, then the report could change.

When possible, the list is an attempt to consolidate observations into an easily searchable list that captures as many of the factors influencing damage and survival.  Because new observations are constantly being added, this list is a perpetual work in progress.

Credits

The following resources were and are being used to build this list:

  • http://www.trebrown.com/palms_arecaceae.php - Used to build the initial list of palms since it is fairly complete and up to date.  Observations added to the list were checked against this list.  If the check failed, it was either because the name given is a synonym or another name needed to be added to the list.
  • http://www.theplantlist.org – Used to check for synonyms of the palm species and varieties in the Trebrown list when no match could be found. 
  • www.palmpedia.net – Invaluable as a tool to check for synonyms and species potentially not listed by the Trebrown list. 
  • http://www.cfpacs.org/freezes-central-florida/ - The freeze observations at this site were added to this list and are also posted in the PalmTalk forums in the Freeze Damage Data section at the following URL: https://www.palmtalk.org/forum/index.php?/topic/40159-aaa-florida-general-palm-hardiness-data/
  • https://www.bg-map.com/noblick.html - The two tables available here were merged and duplicates were removed before expanding the list giving each observation its own row in the table.  When the name of the palm in this list could be identified as a synonym, the name in this list was preserved in the Description field in brackets [].  There is a full list of citations at this page that includes several active forum participants.
  • https://www.palmtalk.org/forum/ - Some of the hardiness observations throughout the forum have been loaded into this list.  This portion will always be a work in progress.

201909190030_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added observations for Sabal etonia, Sabal miamiensis, and a stragler for Nannorrhops ritchiana.

201910021920_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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@RedRabbit Thank you for sharing those direct links.  I'm certain they will be helpful on this project. 

Added observations for Wodyetia bifurcata and a few overlooked Roystonea regia observations.  Almost 1,000 total observations.

 

201910082330_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 2 weeks later...

Added observations for Palms from  2018 Freeze - South Carolina.  The list now contains over 1025 observations.  @Turtlesteve also provided observations for cycads.  A separate but similar list will be started for those and other cycad observations shortly.

201910242000_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added observations for Cycads from  2018 Freeze - South Carolina.  This is the initial list for Cycads and it contains a handful of observations.  Every journey starts with a single step.

201910272030_Cycads_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added a few of my own observations from around town during the freezes of Jan. 2010 and 2018.  Also added some 19F observations for Bismarckia nobilis (green and silver) from Dr. John Rossi.

201911011815_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added @Eric in Orlando's observations from Leu Gardens for the January 2010 freeze (over 500 observations).  This puts the total over 1500 observations.

201911081815_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 2 weeks later...

Added the rest of the January 2010 observations from @Eric in Orlando and @PalmatierMeg.  The format was changed to make the spreadsheet more readable.  Some of the columns are hidden and can be un-hidden if you desire.  There are also 2 sheets inside of the file.  The first sheet is the hardiness observations.  The second sheet is a list of events.  Since so many of the observations were tied to specific freezes in specific locations, the long explanation of the freeze is on the second sheet for particular events.

Some statistics for the current sheet:  Over 1,700 total observations for 568 different palms from 99 different people in 8 countries.

201911170055_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 3 weeks later...

CORRECTION: The last posting contained an error in the Events sheet.  The entry for RedRabbit's observations in 2018 were mistakenly labeled for 2010.  The corrected sheet is attached.

201912050055_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added observations from the Freeze Damage Data forum for: Acanthophoenix crinita, Acrocomia sp., Actinokentia sp., Adonidia merrillii, Aiphanes minima, Allagoptera arenaria, Allagoptera leucocalyx

201912111935_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added observations from the Freeze Damage Data forum for: Archontophoenix alexandrae, Archontophoenix cunninghamiana and a few strays.  The vast bulk of the observations are from the 2007 Freeze in California.

201912140100_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added the remaining observations from the Freeze Damage Data forum for the Archontophoenix sp.

201912191905_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 3 weeks later...

First update in 2020.  Added updates for Areca sp., Arenga sp., Astrocaryum sp. and Attalea sp. from the Freeze Damage Forum.

 

202001041620_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 3 weeks later...

Added updates for Basselinia sp. and Beccariophoenix sp. from the Freeze Damage Forum.  There are now over 2,000 observations recorded in the spreadsheet.

201901192330_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 3 weeks later...

Added updates for Bismarckia nobilis from the Freeze Damage Forum.  Where possible, I attempted to differentiate between the standard green variety and the blue/silver variety.  If a report is inaccurate in this regard, please notify me and I'll correct it.

202002090145_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added updates for Brahea sp. from the Freeze Damage Forum.  Following established convention, synonyms were noted in the description.  There are now over 2,100 observations in the spreadsheet.

202002172200_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 2 weeks later...

Added updates for Burretiokentia sp. from the Freeze Damage Forum.  A smaller update due to the relatively low number of observations for this species.  An interesting note is that all of the observations added were from the 2007 Freeze in California.

202002292200_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added updates for Butia sp. along with various hybrids on pages 3 and 4 from the Freeze Damage Forum.

202003032325_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

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Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 2 weeks later...

Added updates for Carpentaria acuminata, Carpoxylon macrospermum and the members of the Caryota genus on page 4 of the Freeze Damage Forum.  I added two long-term observations from my locality for Caryota mitis and Caryota obtusa.

2020030180020_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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Added updates for Ceroxylon, Chamaedorea and Chambeyronia genus on pages 4 + 5 of the Freeze Damage Forum.  I added an observation of two Chambeyronia macrocarpa from local specimens during the Jan. 2018 advective freeze that were not posted on the forums.

2020030230020_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 3 weeks later...

Palm Hardiness Observations: Added observations for the following genera: Chuniophoenix, Coccothrinax, Cocos, Colpothrinax, Copernicia, Cyrtostachys, Dictyosperma and Dypsis

Cycad Hardiness Observations: Added a few observations for Cycas, Dioon and Zamia

202004092115_Cycads_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx 202004092100_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 1 month later...

The new versions of the sheets are the updates from the middle of page 8 in the freeze forums to the beginning of page 10.  The Cycad sheet is still in its infancy, but here are some interesting statistics on the Palm Observations:

 

20200609_Totals.png

20200609_Top_20_Contributors.png

20200609_Top20Events.png

20200609_Top20_Regions.png

20200609_Top20MostObservedPalms.png

202006092100_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx 202006092115_Cycads_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 1 month later...

Both the Palm and Cycad hardiness observations are now included in one file.  Updates:

  • Sheet includes observations from the Freeze Damage forums up to and including Lytocaryum (Palms) and Macrozamia (Cycads) on page 11.
  • A few typos on the reporter names have been corrected.
  • Now over 3200 cold hardiness reports included.
  • Table dumps included if that strikes your interest.

202007222120_ColdHardinessMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 2 months later...

An update that gets us to page 14 of the Freeze Forums, including the Pritchardia, Pseudophoenix and Ptychosperma genera.  There was another observation added to the Cycads section and there were several Phoenix hybrids added to the Palm IDs.  There are now over 3,500 palm observations.

202010061911_ColdHardinessMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 1 month later...
  • 1 year later...
On 12/11/2021 at 3:33 PM, coco305 said:

Have you guys considered putting the spreadsheet into Github so it can be updated by other members and we can see edits?

If you want I can put this on github

 

-coco

If you would like to put it on GitHub, please feel free.

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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This is a really helpful collection of data. Thank you. I will try to post my palms and help add to the collective data after our coldest nights.

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  • 1 month later...

An update containing as many of the observations from the Feb. 2021 Freeze as possible.  For a mostly complete list of threads, please see the list on @amh's Final Inventory thread:
https://www.palmtalk.org/forum/index.php?/topic/71802-palmageddon-the-final-inventory/&do=findComment&comment=1033432

There are going to be some observations in the Freeze Forums that will get added over the course of the coming year(s), but the observations from this particular event were valuable and provided with great pain I'm sure.  As suggested in the thread above, at some point the observations for very common species may be consolidated into two observations (one for the survivors and one for the drop-outs).  That's a task for another day.

202202062030_ColdHardinessMasterData.xlsx

  • Like 2

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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  • 2 weeks later...
On 9/19/2019 at 11:39 AM, kinzyjr said:

Overview

The PalmTalk forums contain thousands of observations on the cold tolerance from a variety of locations and climates.  One of the primary difficulties in determining cold hardiness of a particular species or variety of palm is that observations vary greatly, even at the same temperature in the same location.  Therefore, hardiness can be more accurately expressed as a probability rather than in absolutes.  

The goal of the attached list is to more accurately calculate the probability and degree of damage one could expect from a freeze on a particular species or variety of palm by consolidating the available data into one document.  This list is provided without any warranty or guarantee, expressed or implied.

Several factors can influence the effect of a low temperature on a palm.  These include:

  1. Ultimate low temperature
  2. Duration of the freeze – time below 28F, time below 32F, number of days with low temperatures
  3. Weather before freeze – was it warm and sunny with plants in active growth or were the palms given time to harden off by a slower onset of below average temperatures?
  4. Advective vs. Radiational freeze? – Advective freezes are usually more damaging due to wind chill and less stratification.
  5. Overhead canopy/protective siting – Was the plant out in the open or under cover?  Are there structures or plants being used as windbreaks?  Canopy typically mitigates frost formation during a radiational freeze and windbreaks lessen the windchill effect during an advective freeze.
  6. Frost – did frost form?
  7. Wet vs. Dry – did the freeze come with wet/damp soils from a preceding rain storm or was the ground dry?
  8. Size and overall health of the plant – A healthy, mature palm is usually more likely to survive than a palm that was juvenile or unhealthy.

Another consideration is how long a grower waited after the freeze to report damage.  Sometimes damage will manifest itself weeks or months after the actual freeze.  If a report comes too soon after the freeze, then the report could change.

When possible, the list is an attempt to consolidate observations into an easily searchable list that captures as many of the factors influencing damage and survival.  Because new observations are constantly being added, this list is a perpetual work in progress.

Credits

The following resources were and are being used to build this list:

  • http://www.trebrown.com/palms_arecaceae.php - Used to build the initial list of palms since it is fairly complete and up to date.  Observations added to the list were checked against this list.  If the check failed, it was either because the name given is a synonym or another name needed to be added to the list.
  • http://www.theplantlist.org – Used to check for synonyms of the palm species and varieties in the Trebrown list when no match could be found. 
  • www.palmpedia.net – Invaluable as a tool to check for synonyms and species potentially not listed by the Trebrown list. 
  • http://www.cfpacs.org/freezes-central-florida/ - The freeze observations at this site were added to this list and are also posted in the PalmTalk forums in the Freeze Damage Data section at the following URL: https://www.palmtalk.org/forum/index.php?/topic/40159-aaa-florida-general-palm-hardiness-data/
  • https://www.bg-map.com/noblick.html - The two tables available here were merged and duplicates were removed before expanding the list giving each observation its own row in the table.  When the name of the palm in this list could be identified as a synonym, the name in this list was preserved in the Description field in brackets [].  There is a full list of citations at this page that includes several active forum participants.
  • https://www.palmtalk.org/forum/ - Some of the hardiness observations throughout the forum have been loaded into this list.  This portion will always be a work in progress.

201909190030_HardinessObservationsMasterData.xlsx

Yes! Thank you very much! 

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Another update, this time a little shorter than the last one.  This should catch the Freeze Forum observations up to the current year.  We'll wait a bit on the new Florida observations.  In addition, after a chat with @richtrav, I changed the observations in Brownsville to 22F if they weren't from @oliver .  Apparently, oliver's garden is in a very unique microclimate and NOAA is sticking to their guns on that 22F mark.

There are now over 4,500 observations in this sheet for palms and 70 for cycads.

202202242030_ColdHardinessMasterData.xlsx

  • Upvote 1

Lakeland, FL

USDA Zone (2012): 9b | Sunset Zone: 26 | Record Low: 20F/-6.67C (1985, 1962) | Record Low USDA Zone: 9a | 30-Year Avg. Low: 30F | 30-year Min: 24F

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