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Parajubaea


Patrick

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I'm interested to know how these have done, especially you guys out in the central valley. How have you fared with these, Dick Douglas? I know you've gotten pretty cold, too

Oakley, California

55 Miles E-NE of San Francisco, CA

Solid zone 9, I can expect at least one night in the mid to low twenties every year.

Hot, dry summers. Cold, wet winters.

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Three 'species' in the lawn, unprotected, about 5' tall from leaf tip to ground:  

P torallyi- no damage at all

P sunkha- no damage at all

P cocoides- a hint of leaf burn

All from 25F-27F for at least 5 hours

3 weeks later, can now see damaged leaf, and new leaves coming out also damaged... much worse than I thought, at first... uh oh.

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one plant, about 6 strap leaves, covered with a sheet, no visible damage after 24 degrees/no frost.

Dave

 

Riverside, CA Z 9b

1700 ft. elevation

approx 40 miles inland

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26.5F minimum. 4' tall pinnate P. cocoides, three 2' tall pinnate torallyi,

two sunka seedlings, two strap leafed cocoides. No damage showing on any of them.

Jim in Los Altos, CA  SF Bay Area 37.34N- 122.13W- 190' above sea level

zone 10a/9b

sunset zone 16

300+ palms, 90+ species in the ground

Las Palmas Design

Facebook Page

Las Palmas Design & Associates

Elegant Homes and Gardens

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Patrick,

I just posted on P. cococides.  As best as I can determine, my low temp. in Dec and Jan has been 23 F.  The P. torallyi was unprotected in Dec when it got down to 23.5 and it was covered with heavy frost several nights. I covered it for the Jan freeze and it's showing moderate damage, but nothing fatal......yet.  I have a smaller P. T V T planted in my back garden, totally exposed and no apparent damage.  Go figgure!!

The 5 gal. P. sunkha and microcarpa were left out for the Dec freeze, but I chickened and put them in my pool house for Jan.  I'm told that P. sunkha is the most hardy of the lot, but I only have one and I didn't want to take a chance with it.

Dick

Richard Douglas

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I have one 2' TVT plant in the East lawn it saw 27°F two nights, slightly bronzed leaf so far.

Several under the carport in 3g. treepots no damage. In McKinleyville Ca. 2 3/4 miles from the Pacific.

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P. cocoides- no damage but it was close to a warm fire.  

Strap leaf P. sunka seedling....a distance away from the fire but 10 feet from swimming pool.....absolutely no damage...the leaves are pristine.

This sunka is 5 feet away from a now chocolate colored A. c "Illawara."

Glenn

Modesto, California

 

Sunset Zone 14   USDA 9b

 

Low Temp. 19F/-7C 12-20-1990         

 

High Temp. 111F/43C 07-23-2006

 

Annual Average Precipitation 13.12 inches/yr.

 

             

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It seems to me that 25 F is about the minimum for Parajubaeas before foliage damage begins to show.  I knew this was the case for P. cocoides, but I was hoping the others would be more cold hardy.  I really thought P T V T would be more hardy.  I left mine totally exposed in the Dec freeze and it got down to 23.5 F and was covered with white frost, and then many mornings after.  It took a while for the damage to show.  All of the horizontal fronds are damaged that were most exposed.  The two center fronds which were pointed up are undamaged, and the palm will probably recover.

I'm told that P. sunka is the most hardy, but I chickened out for the Jan freeze and moved it inside, the same for P. microcarpa.  This has been such a weird winter, I didn't know how cold it might get.  I wanted to cold test P. T V T as I don't think it had been tested before.  I'm sure that if I had covered it with a sheet and kept the frost off, it would have come through OK.

My large P. cocoides which has light overhead protection looks cooked.  It must have gotten much colder in it's location than I thought.  It has survived worse, but it will take a long time to recover.  I'm crushed because it had several years of mild winters and it was so beautiful.

Dick

Richard Douglas

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Come on folks,

Please send in more stats on your Parajubaeas, and be sure to mention which one, size, and exposure.  Did anyone have P. sunka or microcarpa that was exposed to less than 25 F.? I haven't heard any reports on how the Parajubaeas did in our Oakland palm garden, or from the Berkeley Bot. gardens.

Dick

Richard Douglas

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Dick,

I have TvT, microcarpa, and sunkha, none pinnate yet, with much better results for the latter two -- my TvT is mostly brown since the low twenties, and though I finally wrapped it, it probably won't survive the protracted 14-20 degree week of lows we had.  The others are almost untouched, though I wrapped them for the sub-20 nights, kind of muddying the data.  

Anyway, my sunkhas had no damage down to about 20, no protection, very thin canopy.  Same with  the T v microcarpa, and remember that the torallyi v torallyi was already dessicated from 22-23 while the others stayed green.

So, it's not too clear, and I haven't explained so well, but I'd put the tvt around the range of the 24 for light damage, 22 for heavy, with the other species at 21 and 19.

So, let's hope we don't get too many opportunities to experiment further.

Jon T.

Jon T-Central CA coastal valley foothills-9A

Forever seeking juania australis...

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Hi Jon,

Thanks for the info.  Yours is the best report I've seen on P. sunkha and microcarpa. It seems these two are best suited for those of us who live in the colder areas, and P. cocoides and T V T for the milder areas, however I have a smaller pinnate P. T V T growing in my back garden in an exposed area and it's only showing very minor stress, while my larger one, also exposed is about 50% damaged, but nothing lethal.  It should look good by the end of summer if we don't have any more freezes this year.

Your results and mine are very close, so I think we are finally narrowing down their cold tollerance, but there are always veariables.  For one thing, this Jan. freeze lasted a long time and I had night after night of freezing temps. and white frosts on the foliage.  I suspect if there had only been one or two nights of freezing, there would have been much less damage.  Also I didn't protect any of mine for the Dec. freeze so there was already stress to the plants.

Also note that temps on the bay side of the Oakland hills only got down to about 25 F...and that seems to be the magic number for P. T V T and cocoides since there were no reports of significant damage.

Dick

Richard Douglas

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  • 2 weeks later...

My T v T has had 3 consecutive sub zero nights starting at 30f, 28.5f and 24f, then back up to 38f last night. It has overhead protection, green plastic wind break gauze to keep the frost off.

I will let you know if there is any damage later.

Last year it took down to 27.5f  & 25f with no damage. As of last summer It is now fully pinate.

Regards Andy.

Bangor, Norin Iron Zone 9a Min temp normally around -3 Degrees C, rarely -6C. Only 2 x -2.0C so far, verging on 9b this year. No snow or Frost this Winter. Several just subzero's this year, lets hope it stays this way. Normally around 5C to 10C + in winter, with lots of wind & rain. Summers usually better, 20C to 25 C occasionally 25C to 28C, also quite humid being a coastal town

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  • 3 weeks later...

Dead: parajubaea TvT: 4 year old seedling in 5 gal pot accidently left out and mixed in with seedling W/ Filifera, Nannos, Trachys. Some damaged leaves to W. Filifera. Weather as follows, Texas 8b. No more than 5 hours below 26 on the coldest night.

Feb 13: 56/37

Feb 14: 40/33

Feb 15: 41/29

Feb 16: 50/21 ( airport) (My house 23.4)

Feb 17: 64/32

Feb 18: 62/28

Feb 19: 72/40

Current Texas Gardening Zone 9a, Mean (1999-2024): 22F Low/104F High. Yearly Precipitation 39.17 inches.

Extremes: Low Min 4F 2021, 13.8F 2024. High Max 112F 2011/2023, Precipitation Max 58 inches 2015, Lowest 19 Inches 2011.

Weather Station: https://www.wunderground.com/dashboard/pws/KTXCOLLE465

Ryan (Paleoclimatologist Since 4 billion Years ago, Meteorologist/Earth Scientist/Physicist Since 1995, Savy Horticulturist Since Birth.)

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I have yet to see any recognizable damage on my P. sunkha.

Its very small... still at the strap leaf stage (@ 5.)  Its planted @ 3 ft. from a North facing fence, and @ 10 feet from a swimming pool.

I had a fire pot burning over 25 feet away.

Glenn

Modesto, California

 

Sunset Zone 14   USDA 9b

 

Low Temp. 19F/-7C 12-20-1990         

 

High Temp. 111F/43C 07-23-2006

 

Annual Average Precipitation 13.12 inches/yr.

 

             

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My 6-7 leaf seedling of microcarpa looks heavily bronzed after this winter.  The spear remains in tact, so I'm holding out hope for it.  That is after numerous nights in the low-mid 20's, some daytime highs below freezing and bone chilling north winds.  It had an upside down bucket full of leaves over it, which helped shelter it from the winds a little bit, anyways.  It also went down into the mid 20s here in November (Olympia, Washington) and of course we experienced something like 40 inches of rain in Nov and Dec.

Sequim, WA. cool and dry

January average high/low: 44/32

July average high/low: 74/51

16" annual average precipitation

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All of my parajubaeas suffered quite a bit of damage. They seem to be pushing out fresh leafs though.

Meteorologist and PhD student in Climate Science

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  • 4 months later...

An interesting record for the Parajubaeas lovers:

Cordoba city, july 9th 2007, an unusual and unregistered SNOW and heavy frost in the city of an entire week with very low temperatures registered from so low of -5,4° at the morning to 8° C. maxima during the days.-

The snow was spectacular,  around 5 cmts., two nights; days later frost, water frosted to 3,3 to 4 cmts.  deep, water pipelines frosted also in the warmer downtown.-

Today after a month:

Parajubaea torallyi var. torallyi, UNPROTECTED: untouched, nothing!

The same for microcarpa and sunkhas with exposure to the sky (unprotected).- young palms, mostly of 20 to 30 cmts. diameter, 2 metre tall to the top of their leaves: Result: Untouched.-

Not the same for P. cocoides of 10 cmts. diameter fibrose base trunk, with some entire and another pinnate leaves: Severely dammaged but surviving with high probability to recover in the spring.-

Undoubt the freeze tolerance of the bolivians parajubaeas is increased with the size, remember another years seedlings with strapped leaves of torallyi dammaged with not so low temperatures like this.-

Under the same conditions, Caryota himalaya, gigas, Archontophoenix (all) Rhopalostylis bauerii were severely dammaged.-

I cannot image how had survived all those Trithrinax campestris in the mountains with temperatures 10° C. (or lower) lower then here.-

Cheers, Gaston.

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(Gaston in Argentina @ Aug. 03 2007,03:20)

QUOTE
An interesting record for the Parajubaeas lovers:

Cordoba city, july 9th 2007, an unusual and unregistered SNOW and heavy frost in the city of an entire week with very low temperatures registered from so low of -5,4° at the morning to 8° C. maxima during the days.-

The snow was spectacular,  around 5 cmts., two nights; days later frost, water frosted to 3,3 to 4 cmts.  deep, water pipelines frosted also in the warmer downtown.-

Today after a month:

Parajubaea torallyi var. torallyi, UNPROTECTED: untouched, nothing!

The same for microcarpa and sunkhas with exposure to the sky (unprotected).- young palms, mostly of 20 to 30 cmts. diameter, 2 metre tall to the top of their leaves: Result: Untouched.-

Not the same for P. cocoides of 10 cmts. diameter fibrose base trunk, with some entire and another pinnate leaves: Severely dammaged but surviving with high probability to recover in the spring.-

Undoubt the freeze tolerance of the bolivians parajubaeas is increased with the size, remember another years seedlings with strapped leaves of torallyi dammaged with not so low temperatures like this.-

Under the same conditions, Caryota himalaya, gigas, Archontophoenix (all) Rhopalostylis bauerii were severely dammaged.-

I cannot image how had survived all those Trithrinax campestris in the mountains with temperatures 10° C. (or lower) lower then here.-

Cheers, Gaston.

Interesting info Gaston, are you telling me it was -15C!!!! in the mountains where Trithrinax grows ?

No wonder it is such a hardy palm and can survive those temps in europe.

Resident in Bristol UK.

Webshop for hardy palms and hybrid seeds www.hardy-palms.co.uk

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My P. tor tor went through this past winter without a hitch. It was a 5 gallon strapleaf put in the ground the prior Spring. I'm sure it experirienced 25-26F, and was subfreezing several hours 4-5 nights. It's newest leaves are now partially split.

Zone 9b/10a, Sunset Zone 22

7 miles inland. Elevation 120ft (37m)

Average annual low temp: 30F (-1C)

Average annual rainfall: 8" (20cm)

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  • 1 month later...

(PalmGuyWC @ Jan. 25 2007,10:39)

QUOTE
Come on folks,

Please send in more stats on your Parajubaeas, and be sure to mention which one, size, and exposure.  Did anyone have P. sunka or microcarpa that was exposed to less than 25 F.? I haven't heard any reports on how the Parajubaeas did in our Oakland palm garden, or from the Berkeley Bot. gardens.

Dick

Dick,

I recently visited the P. cocoides at Berkeley Botanical garden. It looks absolutely fantastic. Not a hint of any damaged to the palm. It was probably my favorite palm in the whole collection and the motivation for the planting of a smaller specimen in my garden.

Ashton

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Have one strap leafed P. tvt planted in decomposed granite under a tall live oak.  The tvt is planted on the north side of the live oak and somewhat exposed to rain, ice, etc... due to the fact that I remove the lower branches to allow light into the surrounding succulent garden.  This past winter the tvt experienced 48+ hours below 32F with ice as well as 2 nights at 23F.  Only the oldest straps were affected and the palm pushed out 2 new straps during the summer.  As you can imagine, I am very happy to see it still growing, especially given our very wet and cool summer.  A few weeks of sunshine and heat would certainly help before the normal fall/winter rainy pattern sets in.

Clay

South Padre Island, Zone 10b until the next vortex.

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  • 4 months later...

Par TVT..

One plant, 6' OA height

22f, multiple hours and nights below freezing, near pool

No damage

If global warming means I can grow Cocos Nucifera, then bring it on....

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Par TVT

Two plants, 3' OA height

19f, many hours and nights below freezing

30% leaf burn

Fully recovered

If global warming means I can grow Cocos Nucifera, then bring it on....

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Par TVT

50 plants, 5 gal

19f, many hours and nights below freezing, covered with 1" of ice from avocado irrigation

10% leaf burn

Fully recovered

If global warming means I can grow Cocos Nucifera, then bring it on....

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100 plants, 15 gal to 24" box size

15 f, 13 hrs below freezing first night, thereafter too depressed to check my hi/lo. 5 nights into the hi teens/low twenties for sure, many hours below freezing

Foliage was Ok for the most part, but pulled spears on most. Lost 60 % of plants. Not as hardy as Jubaea, but still pretty hardy. Most of the one I lost were the smaller ones. 6' OA height and 5" caliper size seemed to survive.

If global warming means I can grow Cocos Nucifera, then bring it on....

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800 plants, 3/4 leaf seedlings

15 f, 13 hrs below freezing first night, thereafter too depressed to check my hi/lo. 5 nights into the hi teens/low twenties for sure, many hours below freezing

Deed....all Deed

If global warming means I can grow Cocos Nucifera, then bring it on....

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  • 10 months later...

My Parajubaea Torallyi var. microcarpa non pinate,one foot,one inch in diameter,I keep inside an unheated greenhouse,

where it has to take freezing temperatur night after night.

After a night with a low at -6 C (21f) it now shows about 10 - 20 % leaf burn, at the older leaves.

The vertical emerging leaves are untouched.

Marcel

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Marcel,

Nice to see this old thread bumped up. I haven't seen much news on Parajubaeas lately. I've just experienced two cold nights with temps around 31F (-0.5 C). My larger P. TVT had some ice on the fronds as the rain from earlier had not evaporated. I'm hoping the Parajubaeas will get tougher as they get older and the crowns grow up from the ground. All of mine squeeked through last winter with no damage with a low of 25.5F

Dick

Richard Douglas

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  • 3 weeks later...

27F and many hours and nights at or below freezing with many mornings with a short period of light frost. 2 small 2 gallons. No damage.

Matt in Temecula, CA

Hot and dry in the summer, cold with light frost in the winter. Halfway between the desert and ocean

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two weeks with moderate freezes and heavy frost between -4°C/25°F and -6°C/21°F and one night with -8.5°C/17°F and days of only 0°C/4°C (32°F/39°F)...

P. tvt, pinate leaves. no damage but is kept dry with a roof and lights on the ground kept the ground warm. (it had a fleece on the coldest nights)... (update coming spring)

winter 07/08, few moderate freezes and many light freezes (coldest-5.9°C/ 21.3°F). no damage at all (kept dry with a roof)

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My low this year, so far, is the same as Matt with many frosty mornings. My P. TVT has fronds higher than my head, and no damage. I found out in '07 that anything below 25F will cause foliage burn, but it survived 23.5 F with 60% frond damage. Just throwing a sheet over the palm and keeping the frost off the foliage helps a lot. They are not as cold hardy as I had hoped for.

Dick

Richard Douglas

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Hi Dick,

as i said, mine had no damage after -5.9°C/21.3°F during the winter of 07/08. it had a roof so it had no frost on the leaves...could it be that they are less hardy in a warm climate like yours (in comparison with my climate you are much warmer) just like Sabals and R. hystrix, who loves warm/hot climates, are much less hardy in climates like mine with not enough summer heat to keep them happy?

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  • 1 year later...

They took 3 weeks of sub zero temps with at least 2 excursions to -4c/24.8v and 2 lower dips to -5c/23f.

I have 2 TVT's and 2 microcarpas and a small, still strap leafed TVT. They all took Frost, Snow and Ice with no signs of damage yet except the strapped leafed seedling which has leaf burn all over. It is sill alive and green spear looks OK.

I think the older they are the tougher they get.

Regards Andy.

Bangor, Norin Iron Zone 9a Min temp normally around -3 Degrees C, rarely -6C. Only 2 x -2.0C so far, verging on 9b this year. No snow or Frost this Winter. Several just subzero's this year, lets hope it stays this way. Normally around 5C to 10C + in winter, with lots of wind & rain. Summers usually better, 20C to 25 C occasionally 25C to 28C, also quite humid being a coastal town

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My P TVT planted out last spring as a 5gal now going pinnate has gone unscathed in an open area with 13 nights at below freezing temps for up to 10hr periods. Here in Pensacola FL, also of note my BXP never stopped growing it's pushing new spears @ the moment, unfazed by the weather it's about 4' tall.

Paul Gallop

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I have a small p.t. microcarpa protected by snow rain and wind, during 2 days we had -7 C and -5 C by night and -3 C and 0 C by day. The parajubaea has no damage after one month, all the aloe were melted and rhopalostilis sapida oceana seems dead

ciao

Federico

Federico

Ravenna , Italy

USDA 8a\b

16146.gif

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  • 3 weeks later...

Update, It took some time to show damage on the P TVT spear pulled not looking good...

My P TVT planted out last spring as a 5gal now going pinnate has gone unscathed in an open area with 13 nights at below freezing temps for up to 10hr periods. Here in Pensacola FL, also of note my BXP never stopped growing it's pushing new spears @ the moment, unfazed by the weather it's about 4' tall.

Paul Gallop

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They took 3 weeks of sub zero temps with at least 2 excursions to -4c/24.8v and 2 lower dips to -5c/23f.

I have 2 TVT's and 2 microcarpas and a small, still strap leafed TVT. They all took Frost, Snow and Ice with no signs of damage yet except the strapped leafed seedling which has leaf burn all over. It is sill alive and green spear looks OK.

I think the older they are the tougher they get.

Regards Andy.

Your garden never ceases to amaze me Andy - can we see some new pics this spring ?

Old Beach ,Hobart
Tasmania ,Australia. 42 " south
Cool Maritime climate

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January freeze '10. Parajubaea sunkha strap leaves about 2-3' tall. Tens of hours below freezing with ultimate lows around 20. Somewhat protected by house. Some damage to leaves but spear pulled :angry: Hopefully it will recover, leaves still look good though!

-Krishna

  • Like 1

-Krishna

Kailua, Oahu HI. Near the beach but dry!

Still have a garden in Zone 9a Inland North Central Florida (Ocala)

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  • 2 months later...

Update April 2010: New spear grown and opened! Parajubaea sunkha seems to be hardier than the queen palm in my yard as the leaves still look good too. It may be slow in the southeast but grows steadily during the spring and fall.

-Krishna

  • Upvote 1

-Krishna

Kailua, Oahu HI. Near the beach but dry!

Still have a garden in Zone 9a Inland North Central Florida (Ocala)

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  • 2 years later...

Here's my 5-year update on post #10: My TvT that burned after a week of 14s and 18 and 21 degrees never lost its spear and is over 7 feet and trunking a bit. I t still bronzes a bit at 24, which seems to be its cosmetic limit, but actual burn damage that you want to cut off occurs a bit lower. Just like Dick and others said. It kind of reminds me of a queen, since it gets a little toasted every other year when I drop into the low 20s, but it grows fast so it looks good usually and is not stunted or scruffy like a truly marginal palm might be in my 9a (like beccariophoenix, maybe?).

Even better news for my microcarpas -- they seem bulletproof -- I got the seeds from Gaston in 2001 and they sprouted about ten years ago, and there's never been damage, though they are very slow, so I have been able to cover with a towel when it drops below 25. This winter they've been unscathed at 24, uncovered. Same deal with my 6 foot sunkhas -- as Dick and others said, they also seem a taste tougher than TvT, maybe a bit like mules, not getting ratty until very low 20s over a couple nights. Anybody else have updates to corroborate or contradict?

Jon T-Central CA coastal valley foothills-9A

Forever seeking juania australis...

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