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The World of Ferns


palmsOrl

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While detailed in the "Socially Distanced.. Part #2 " thread, thought i'd toss a few images of some native, Xeric Ferns here as well..  and include a few quick tips for collecting spores i'd forgotten to detail in the before-mentioned thread for anyone interested..  And no, the collection tips aren't restricted to just this group of Ferns.. They can be used when attempting Spore germination w/ pretty much any other fern.  More detailed information can be found via the American Fern Society, among other sources..

Star Cloak Fern, Notholaena standleyi:
DSC00312.JPG.4f56ea97c16ea8ba900784422069608e.JPG

DSC00310.JPG.6cdc6b138a282b1ab4e9d2b9dfbcb881.JPG


Parry's Lip Fern, Myriopteris parryi:
DSC00341.JPG.ab590652ba155783b63bd230688af35f.JPG

DSC00342.JPG.ff311f227ef76dc2191a848bafaf0f5e.JPG


Close up of the difference between fertile, spore-producing (L ) and non-fertile fronds ( R ) of Notholaena standleyi :
DSC00390.JPG.5499492c618875c8de64380b113b0f89.JPG

Same idea w/ Myriopteris parryi.. though it is harder to tell since Spores are hidden in the " fuzz ":
DSC00393.JPG.cbed33cabd6ead7923d23c0b866a951c.JPG


When collecting, always collect a few fronds here, a few others from a different plant/group of plants.. While plants will grow new ones, you never want to completely strip a plant of growing material.. And use scissors to snip off fronds so the roots aren't disturbed. Can also collect good looking, dried out fronds as well, though it is possible they have shed a good %'age of their Spores.  Remember, you don't need to collect more than say a half dozen/ dozen or so fertile fronds to have ample material to germinate..

In some cases, ferns with long fronds for instance, you may be able to snip off only a portion of the frond to get germinating material.

As was suggested in an article i'd looked over, Spores can be placed in an envelope made of Parchment or Wax paper. ( may have to secure/close bottom/side w/ glue.. Found out tape doesn't work, lol )   Using a Plastic Sandwich-type bag, spores can stick to the sides and be difficult to collect/remove. Some also store fronds/ spores in glass, though that might not be something you want to carry w/ you when climbing over slick or loose boulders, lol:wacko:

Myriopteris parryi
DSC00394.thumb.JPG.98cbfb8cff832c7d4c0c2d7949198c43.JPG

Notholaena standleyi
DSC00395.thumb.JPG.4bad38fad964347e753794c8c3078832.JPG

Now to get a hold of some Sterilized Petri Dishes ( though small, plastic storage containers can be used as well )

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On 12/28/2020 at 1:17 PM, Silas_Sancona said:

While detailed in the "Socially Distanced.. Part #2 " thread, thought i'd toss a few images of some native, Xeric Ferns here as well.. 

Star Cloak Fern, Notholaena standleyi:
DSC00312.JPG.4f56ea97c16ea8ba900784422069608e.JPG

DSC00310.JPG.6cdc6b138a282b1ab4e9d2b9dfbcb881.JPG


Close up of the difference between fertile, spore-producing (L ) and non-fertile fronds ( R ) of Notholaena standleyi :
DSC00390.JPG.5499492c618875c8de64380b113b0f89.JPG





Notholaena standleyi
DSC00395.thumb.JPG.4bad38fad964347e753794c8c3078832.JPG

Now to get a hold of some Sterilized Petri Dishes ( though small, plastic storage containers can be used as well )

And so begins a new experiment... Having lucked out over the holidays, decided to use empty Gelato containers, rather than purchase Petri dishes.. At least for the trial run..  Like that they ( the containers ) are deeper, which means i can keep the young plant-lets in a near perfect environment longer.


 Base layer is a 1/2" layer of medium - sized grit ( Turface, Pumice, some Lava bits, Granite bits ) and pre-soak w/ Distilled water.. drain off excess..
DSC00411.thumb.JPG.b322dcd3b5d5cf418cdf72108a2beff8.JPG


Add a 1/2" or so layer of finer gain material on top of the base layer ( essentially the same components as the base layer ).. Used a milk cap to add a little more water to the mix, but drain off anything extra. Want the mix to be moist, not soaked, or have standing water in the bottom..  Then pack down. You want the surface to be as flat as possible.
DSC00410.thumb.JPG.f02f6d8e3759f39be933167d8e0224aa.JPG

Label, Label, Label.. Always  important, no matter what you're germinating.. Will be doing a few other collections from down south in the next month or two so it is important to know exactly where X batch of plants originated.
DSC00413.thumb.JPG.7c9c9dea5eb9d0351f9cffde64b3ea0f.JPG


May be hard to see, but lots of Spores resting on the surface.. after carefully tapping out of the envelope.
DSC00414.JPG.87c46dc2058c8ab1c86c8adca88dea51.JPG


Store somewhere dark where it stays above roughly 22 Celsius/ 71F for the incubation period. Put these up in an empty cabinet above the fridge. Will sit there for about two weeks. Move to somewhere in bright indirect light to continue the germination process.. If all go well, i should see the beginnings of new plants in about 3 months or so.. Spores are much different than germinating seeds. 

..Will update later.

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  • 1 month later...

D. Antarctica after 15 degrees (League City TX).  I had it tented with 6mil plastic and had a 150w reptile heat lamp under there to keep the temp up but the power outages rendered that useless.  I'm really disappointed since this was one of my favorite plants in the yard and I don't think she's coming back.  I wish I could remember who said it, but I once read an article where the author stated "I consider everything hardy until I've killed it at least 3 times", so in the spirit of that I will be replacing the Antarctica and pairing it with a C. Cooperi for some company.

20210220_111733.jpg

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Any one growing Microsorum scolopendria aka Kangaroo fern? I like it's dark glossy leaves and black stems. I figure It would be perfect as a summer fern in a hanging pot and taken back inside before winter. I think its hardy to z9 ?

IMG-0122.JPG

Edited by Paradise Found
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On 9/6/2020 at 6:49 AM, palmsOrl said:

Well, I was doing a little research into Florida native ferns, when I happened across a photo of a plant that I had found in a disturbed site under some Sabal palmetto.  Not sure what it was, I inquired on here a couple months back, but nobody was certain as to the strange-looking plant's true identity.  The consensus had been that is was likely some sort of clubmoss or spikemoss.

The photo I came across was a definite match for the plant in question and apparently, it is actually a fern (in a broad sense according to Wikipedia) in the genus Psilotum.  Psilotum nudum, or "whisk fern" to be exact.  Both members of this primitive genus have populations on several continents worldwide.  Further, these are apparently some of the most primitive vascular plants surviving today.

IMG_20200906_044303761.thumb.jpg.66defbfa1b17bf345f65f1557b27b22c.jpg

Psilotum reproduce via spore borne within tiny spherical structures called synangia.  These can be clearly seen in the photo along the branch like structures of my plant.

IMG_20200906_044314510.thumb.jpg.a0c4d44414ab836c9d0aca08db1c4d86.jpg

These are apparently quite common in Central Florida and are hardy to zone 8b.

-Michael

We have these all over our place here in Melbourne Beach!

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Melbourne Beach, Florida on the barrier island -two blocks from the Atlantic Ocean and 6 homes from the Indian River Lagoon

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On 12/19/2020 at 7:21 PM, Merlyn said:

And the last one I really liked is the "Giant Leather Fern" Acrostichum danaeifolium.  At least I think that's what it is.  I saw a bunch at the Sanford Zoo over Thanksgiving and now I really want to grow them.  I read they need continuously swampy conditions, so it might be difficult.  The ones at the zoo were growing directly in the alligator ponds, so clearly they love water!

 

1508047069_GiantLeatherFern.thumb.jpg.77602b96451e0f71305447f7b8c8474d.jpg

They will grow well in captivity without "swampy conditions" We have them in our yard , beachside, Melbourne Beach. 

 

 

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Melbourne Beach, Florida on the barrier island -two blocks from the Atlantic Ocean and 6 homes from the Indian River Lagoon

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  • 3 weeks later...
On 2/25/2021 at 8:56 PM, Keys6505 said:

D. Antarctica after 15 degrees (League City TX).  I had it tented with 6mil plastic and had a 150w reptile heat lamp under there to keep the temp up but the power outages rendered that useless.  I'm really disappointed since this was one of my favorite plants in the yard and I don't think she's coming back.  I wish I could remember who said it, but I once read an article where the author stated "I consider everything hardy until I've killed it at least 3 times", so in the spirit of that I will be replacing the Antarctica and pairing it with a C. Cooperi for some company.

20210220_111733.jpg

I am still cleaning out the yard from the TX freeze aftermath and got to this guy today.   I poked around a little more invasively than I had been because I was about ready to give up and yank it out.  The fronds were obviously all gone and the fiddleheads that were next in line had slowly curled and shriveled over the past few weeks.  I jammed my finger in there to check on the layer of fiddleheads underneath and felt some firmness so I scraped off some of the fuzz.   The exposed green sure looks like alive green and not petrified green, doesn't it?  Is there any chance this thing is still alive after 15 degrees?

20210323_132005.jpg

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On 1/2/2021 at 1:18 PM, Silas_Sancona said:

And so begins a new experiment... Having lucked out over the holidays, decided to use empty Gelato containers, rather than purchase Petri dishes.. At least for the trial run..  Like that they ( the containers ) are deeper, which means i can keep the young plant-lets in a near perfect environment longer.


 Base layer is a 1/2" layer of medium - sized grit ( Turface, Pumice, some Lava bits, Granite bits ) and pre-soak w/ Distilled water.. drain off excess..
DSC00411.thumb.JPG.b322dcd3b5d5cf418cdf72108a2beff8.JPG


Add a 1/2" or so layer of finer gain material on top of the base layer ( essentially the same components as the base layer ).. Used a milk cap to add a little more water to the mix, but drain off anything extra. Want the mix to be moist, not soaked, or have standing water in the bottom..  Then pack down. You want the surface to be as flat as possible.
DSC00410.thumb.JPG.f02f6d8e3759f39be933167d8e0224aa.JPG

Label, Label, Label.. Always  important, no matter what you're germinating.. Will be doing a few other collections from down south in the next month or two so it is important to know exactly where X batch of plants originated.
DSC00413.thumb.JPG.7c9c9dea5eb9d0351f9cffde64b3ea0f.JPG


May be hard to see, but lots of Spores resting on the surface.. after carefully tapping out of the envelope.
DSC00414.JPG.87c46dc2058c8ab1c86c8adca88dea51.JPG


Store somewhere dark where it stays above roughly 22 Celsius/ 71F for the incubation period. Put these up in an empty cabinet above the fridge. Will sit there for about two weeks. Move to somewhere in bright indirect light to continue the germination process.. If all go well, i should see the beginnings of new plants in about 3 months or so.. Spores are much different than germinating seeds. 

..Will update later.

Quick update..

After what seems like eternity, this experiment might just be paying off.. 

While there wasn't much change in how the surface of the container looked between when i took the last picture in the above post, and the start of this month, noticed a very faint green sheen on the surface earlier when looking over the jar, and some green specks here and there between some of the gravel bits as well when i opened it and took a better look inside.. Could be Algae of some sort forming, but could also be the first hints of evolving plantlets.

With temps on the rise, and looking to stay warm now, suspect it will be much more obvious whether i'm seeing the first signs of developing ferns or not by the end of the month.  

Container the spores are in sits on one of my benches on the patio, behind a couple layers of shade cloth to keep out direct sun in the afternoon. Aside from that, get plenty of bright indirect light through the day. 

Fingers crossed..

 

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  • 4 weeks later...

Late April update: 

Looks like somethings going on in there..  Doesn't look like moss / algae. 

Went ahead and started another trial container ( Batch #2 ) around the end of March. While i don't anticipate much from the spores sown this time ( a mix of species collected in Tucson, and South Mountain.. Some samples released more spores than others when processed ) noticed some green starting to pop in a couple spots between gravel bits on the surface. 

We'll see how things progress.

Batch #1, 4/ 24/ 21:
DSC02401.JPG.f9b0b8f7170254357aca0cf084d13889.JPG

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  • 7 months later...
On 4/24/2021 at 1:32 PM, Silas_Sancona said:

Late April update: 

Looks like somethings going on in there..  Doesn't look like moss / algae. 

Went ahead and started another trial container ( Batch #2 ) around the end of March. While i don't anticipate much from the spores sown this time ( a mix of species collected in Tucson, and South Mountain.. Some samples released more spores than others when processed ) noticed some green starting to pop in a couple spots between gravel bits on the surface. 

We'll see how things progress.

Batch #1, 4/ 24/ 21:
DSC02401.JPG.f9b0b8f7170254357aca0cf084d13889.JPG

Dec. 2021 update:..  Unfortunately, after a couple accidents, and exposure to too much sun, this years trial batch did not make it.. Starting new ones soon.. New house has a couple spots where there should be fairly dense, all day shade thru the year that may be worth taking advantage of..   We'll see how it goes this time..

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On 12/16/2021 at 10:23 AM, Silas_Sancona said:

Dec. 2021 update:..  Unfortunately, after a couple accidents, and exposure to too much sun, this years trial batch did not make it.. Starting new ones soon.. New house has a couple spots where there should be fairly dense, all day shade thru the year that may be worth taking advantage of..   We'll see how it goes this time..

I’m glad other people have a ton of different plant interests and projects going on. Whether I am or not…makes me at least feel like I’m not a crazy person lol. The wife and I have been growing a few different varieties of gourmet mushrooms (if you just say “edible” mushrooms, the lines can get blurred with something nefarious lol). Namely lions mane, my wife’s favorite, blue oyster in the past not currently growing this species. Anyway, from spores regarding fungi you need 5 things to be successful sterilization, moisture/ humidity, temperature, fertility, and light. Not that I have a clue about growing ferns from spores (do have 6 or 7 growing around the yard though), but I saw every box checked except possibly something edible for the fern spawn to snack on…unless there’s enough “food” initially from grit/ gravel? 

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4 minutes ago, teddytn said:

I’m glad other people have a ton of different plant interests and projects going on. Whether I am or not…makes me at least feel like I’m not a crazy person lol. The wife and I have been growing a few different varieties of gourmet mushrooms (if you just say “edible” mushrooms, the lines can get blurred with something nefarious lol). Namely lions mane, my wife’s favorite, blue oyster in the past not currently growing this species. Anyway, from spores regarding fungi you need 5 things to be successful sterilization, moisture/ humidity, temperature, fertility, and light. Not that I have a clue about growing ferns from spores (do have 6 or 7 growing around the yard though), but I saw every box checked except possibly something edible for the fern spawn to snack on…unless there’s enough “food” initially from grit/ gravel? 

Yes, Might not seem like it but the grit itself contains what nutrients / etc the spores need to get going as they develop.. You can add a little crushed Eggshell, and / or pinch of Bone Meal below the layer of sand / grit ( where you'd lay the spores ) but no real need to add any fertilizer until plantlets start to develop.. If you did, has to be little or no Nitrogen in it. ( You can see all the weird stages they go through, before reaching the obvious, plantlet stage toward the bottom of this article:   https://www.amerfernsoc.org/xeric-ferns

As mentioned, they got going, but got knocked off something they'd been sitting on during one of our wind storms late last June ( before the rains set in )  Going to try another batch soon.. If that still gets me nowhere, it's on to Petri Dishes, and building a light box that will sit in my bedroom. Determined.. lol..

Have been seeing the mushroom kits being offered by a few of the " good " nurseries in Tucson.  Not the biggest fan of them in cooking, but pretty cool they're offered for people to grow, instead of spending $$ to get them from the store. Good introduction to understanding the life cycle of Fungi as well.

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Hello all, this topic peaked my interest to ID some of the ferns in my garden. What fern reference, wither printed or online do you recommend?

Thanks,

Tim 

Tim

Hilo, Hawaii

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23 minutes ago, realarch said:

Hello all, this topic peaked my interest to ID some of the ferns in my garden. What fern reference, wither printed or online do you recommend?

Thanks,

Tim 

Tim,

Don't know if the person named toward the end of this article ( from 2010 ) is still associated w/ Honolulu Botanical, or Lyons, but they both apparently display numerous sp. native in their collections ( Article sites up to 170 sp. with 77% being Endemic to the islands )  Might be a great, local source to contact / e-mail any pictures to.
https://www.honolulumagazine.com/hawaiian-fern-fetish/


You can also look over fern observations made on iNaturalist in your area to also help whittle down ID's.  American Fern Society is another great resource. Can't think of any off the top of my head, but sure there are some excellent books out there regarding cultivated ferns.. Probably natives too.

Edited by Silas_Sancona
correction
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Mahalo for the response Nathan! Thanks also for your active participation on this forum. 

Tim

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Tim

Hilo, Hawaii

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This mule’s foot fern came up on it’s own in the back garden, ( Angiopteris evecta), and it’s getting BIG. They are invasive on parts of the island chain and can be massive. I need to keep and eye on this one before it takes over. 

Tim

CC2FCD47-564A-4392-B2EF-8E11541CE5DB.jpeg

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Tim

Hilo, Hawaii

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  • 3 weeks later...

While doing some < Very > early plant shopping earlier today in the  " Old Pueblo " < Tucson >  Stumbled upon these while visiting a favorite garden.. 


Until today, never seen any of these for sale, anywhere out here ..Let alone IN 5 GALS!!  Good prices too!

Wavy Cloak Fern.. Can be found for sale, usually not even close to this size, for almost as much ( $25.00 )

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Gray's Cloak Fern.. Same Genus as our native Star Cloak, and it's California sister species.. But  ID'ing just based on the Fronds, could easily be mistaken for an Astrolepis species..

DSC08888.JPG.a9ffc7a981d3f7a2c106f684a7d84900.JPG

DSC08887.thumb.JPG.ff2342eea11e2ed37c45c867a7467edf.JPG

 Goldback Lip Fern ** Has been shuffled into the Genus Myriopteris. Species was also changed. https://www.inaturalist.org/taxon_changes?taxon_id=481697

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Fuzzy / Wooly Lip Fern ** Is also now part of the Myriopteris genus **
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DSC08884.thumb.JPG.51f39e3a7a42b946c3d0991908e2669f.JPG


..And one of the coolest of our native sp.  ..Copper Fern:yay: Haven't even seen these in habitat  -yet!.  Never thought i would come across several well grown specimens in 3 and 5 gal containers in a Nursery!
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Almost.. bought one   ..but not a fern i want to try growing until i have an ideal set up. 

Grabbed a Wavy Cloak though since they're perhaps the easiest of the Xeric ferns to cultivate.  Out in the Desert, these can be found growing in much more sun / dry  exposures than anyone would assume any fern could tolerate
.

 

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  • 1 year later...

Some Myriopteris ( ..likely lindheimeri.. Photo #1 may be M. covillei  though ) throwing fresh new fronds up at Oak Flat..  Determined to get some of these growing..

IMG_0211.thumb.JPG.cb61b3b4788ba30055b3969b102442f7.JPG



IMG_0318.thumb.JPG.999974d3cd458717ae4af71712fb2202.JPG

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  • 3 months later...

Lower Macleay Trail in Portland, Oregon's Forest Park

Woodwardia fimbriata

PXL_20230716_181749233.thumb.jpg.73ea300633c0fb5a66630f17173b2116.jpg

PXL_20230716_181835730.thumb.jpg.30cc8ceda29c04b271d9f17cbf5fbfce.jpg

Polystichum munitum

PXL_20230716_183503618.thumb.jpg.ca233ed712d27778252f4e5a0c00f63b.jpg

PXL_20230716_181735383.thumb.jpg.9cd4964fb50f72be49233b0075d915ce.jpg

PXL_20230716_181714187.thumb.jpg.d4b679363bf9dd0f2332506ee3e56b2a.jpg

PXL_20230716_182544015.thumb.jpg.2107ea58ab71e103d0802b405cb7f665.jpg

Adiantum aleuticum

PXL_20230716_183626503.thumb.jpg.38405c8f1b2b621e3b806ef3888e87c6.jpg

PXL_20230716_180501786.thumb.jpg.0173646015368b5c7c2e5b84f0e5d3dd.jpg

PXL_20230716_183236941.thumb.jpg.242ab07fd3551104bf9ff65d89345cd9.jpg

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PXL_20230716_183531593.thumb.jpg.ce254c22d926ebb32a2461ebb2f29157.jpg

PXL_20230716_183049324.thumb.jpg.b6d1310b0dbcb5a28568c3f91e3f838e.jpg

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Chris

San Francisco, CA 

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  • 1 month later...

Golden Gate Park fern garden. Not the Tree Fern Dell/Mescaline Grove near the Conservatory of Flowers but the unnamed (as far as I know) garden on MLK Jr Drive between Mallard Lake and Elk Glen Lake.

Two of the oldest Sphaeropteris died within the past couple of years. One old one remains, along with the tall stems of the deceased (visible in the first photo, but hard to make out the old stems amongst the trees in the background).

PXL_20230907_221209780.thumb.jpg.68320bed37ec456c6f836d274b34aeba.jpg

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Chris

San Francisco, CA 

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  • 2 months later...
  • 1 month later...

Here’s some native Australian ferns in habitat in a cool temperate rainforest in a subtropical environment 

IMG_2485.jpeg

IMG_2489.jpeg

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IMG_2492.jpeg

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  • 3 months later...

Polypodium guttatum

PXL_20240410_180332736.thumb.jpg.832b352444da0d922701d5cbb099e5d0.jpg

PXL_20240410_180459542.thumb.jpg.d93f9682c5c5f8120ce365b6bca55ce2.jpg

Polypodium scouleri

PXL_20240410_180621987.thumb.jpg.4aca8fd78a0cf39b0899d6be615b3c73.jpg

PXL_20240410_180650517.thumb.jpg.4163f203b6c8b34bceb1cb41165db947.jpg

with P. glycyrrhiza on its left

PXL_20240410_180921049.thumb.jpg.62df41ac1d976cde05494ec0964ce14b.jpg

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Chris

San Francisco, CA 

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