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Sabal palmetto restoration in NC

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NC_Palms

What would it take to restore Sabal palmetto where it was once extirpated in NC? There is an overwhelming amount of documentation that claims this palm was found as north as Cape Hatteras and inland to Columbus Co within the last centuries. North Carolina's Sabal palmetto population is currently listed as threatened, with populations only existing in the Bald Head Island complex. Overharvesting of palmettos for fort building during the Civil War, the cold spell of 1916/17, coastal development all have put a toll on this species. I know that in Virginia Beach, Sabal minor enthusiast are trying to restore that palms northernmost population. But what will it take for the restoration of Sabal palmetto in once extirpated locations of its range? 

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PalmTreeDude

Getting many ripe seed stalks and flinging the seeds everywhere... Well at least that is what I did here... 

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NOT A TA

They're one of the most prolific weed trees here and take over other plantings. So, do like PalmTreeDude suggested. Next time you're down in S FL take a 5 gallon bucket of seed back and throw them anywhere you want. If conditions would be acceptable for survival they'll grow. Gotta neighbor ya don't like? Toss seeds randomly about their yard in their garden beds, along fences, and anywhere else the mower won't hit them. A weed wacker won't kill them, they laugh at the common big box available concentrations of Round up & other plant killers. They're very hard to pull up once they're beyond strap leaves and require a shovel (or saw) to remove. Thankfully none of my neighbors have them, and the ones I grow I take elsewhere to plant in areas I want to "naturalize" way before they produce seed.

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NC_Palms

I am considering tossing some seeds around but I will only do it if they are of NC stock. I am concerned that South Florida palmettos will genetically interfere with our variations.

Transplanted Sabal palmettos from Florida do naturalize here, so I guess that those naturalized palmettos can be considered native at this point, especially when growing in areas that this palm was once native to.

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Zeeth

Yeah, Scott Zona's monograph lists some differences between BHI S. palmetto and the Florida type, so I'd use the native type if you're going to spread seeds around. 

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PalmatierMeg

I'm not advocating collecting on private or state park land but if you are serious about spreading this native Sabal as well as keeping genetic diversity I suggest you make scouting trips to areas where wild palms exist next spring when they bloom and set seeds. Choose a palm in different areas, then when seeds ripen in the fall (which is, in NC when?). Go back with labeled bags and a pole saw. Then, cut one (1) infructescense from each of those palms you selected and bag it. You won't be seriously interferring with any individual palm's reproduction. Later, you can mix the seeds together and distribute in areas you want to repopulate. The following year choose palms from other areas and repeat.

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Jimbean
16 hours ago, NOT A TA said:

They're one of the most prolific weed trees here and take over other plantings. So, do like PalmTreeDude suggested. Next time you're down in S FL take a 5 gallon bucket of seed back and throw them anywhere you want. If conditions would be acceptable for survival they'll grow. Gotta neighbor ya don't like? Toss seeds randomly about their yard in their garden beds, along fences, and anywhere else the mower won't hit them. A weed wacker won't kill them, they laugh at the common big box available concentrations of Round up & other plant killers. They're very hard to pull up once they're beyond strap leaves and require a shovel (or saw) to remove. Thankfully none of my neighbors have them, and the ones I grow I take elsewhere to plant in areas I want to "naturalize" way before they produce seed.

hahaha

I had a similar discussion about royals in Florida and the first thing I did is I ascertained the natural environment in which they would grow naturally, then looked on google earth to scout out the places that would yield the maximum potential to survive.  I would imagine that they would potentially grow naturally in coastal areas, so I would start there.

And Zeeth's is also correct that you should probably try planting seeds of the nearest natural population.   

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PalmTreeDude

Like others are saying, I would definitely use seed or flowers to pollinate local palmetto flowers from wild palmetto growing within North Carolina. 

Edited by PalmTreeDude
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NC_Palms

I like all the ideas. I am planning to get down the BHI in the next few months. It is late in the season to start collecting seeds but I will see what I can find. If that is unsuccessful I will return when I am certain that the seed stocks will be full in the fall. 

I already have a list of places that are suitable for restoring Sabal palmetto. It mostly is maritime forest, hammocks and in the foredunes from Cape Hatteras to BHI. I still haven't found out if Sabal palmetto was ever naturally occurring south of BHI to Myrtle Beach; along the Grand Strand. I will consider restoration there as well, only If I can find enough solid evidence proving that Sabal palmetto was once native in recent history. 

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NOT A TA

I certainly agree with using the local seed if possible. It just seemed like that wasn't an option or he'd be doing it, so I suggested perhaps the FL seed. From Scott Zona's monograph (thanks for the mention of it Zeeth) it seemed he felt the coastal population in the Carolina's had likely been started by seed drifting north from the plants farther down the coast, noting that the Carolina Sabals had a higher percentage of good floating seed.

I've been thinking about why they may not thrive there anymore.

Are there ANY other areas in NC where the Sabal Palmettos are currently growing you think may be natural, even if in small numbers? Seems very unlikely that clear cutting would have eliminated all of the trees, seedlings would pop right back up if conditions were favorable. Likewise, occasional bad winters wouldn't wipe them all out. Some would probably have been in unusually favorable micro climates at the southern end of the range or a low percentage of seed would sprout after extreme cold that were protected more than most. There may be other environmental factors that have changed or perhaps something like the bees that liked them were killed off so pollination was almost non existent. Just seems kinda weird that they're all gone but for the ones in the small area.

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NC_Palms
16 hours ago, NOT A TA said:

I certainly agree with using the local seed if possible. It just seemed like that wasn't an option or he'd be doing it, so I suggested perhaps the FL seed. From Scott Zona's monograph (thanks for the mention of it Zeeth) it seemed he felt the coastal population in the Carolina's had likely been started by seed drifting north from the plants farther down the coast, noting that the Carolina Sabals had a higher percentage of good floating seed.

I've been thinking about why they may not thrive there anymore.

Are there ANY other areas in NC where the Sabal Palmettos are currently growing you think may be natural, even if in small numbers? Seems very unlikely that clear cutting would have eliminated all of the trees, seedlings would pop right back up if conditions were favorable. Likewise, occasional bad winters wouldn't wipe them all out. Some would probably have been in unusually favorable micro climates at the southern end of the range or a low percentage of seed would sprout after extreme cold that were protected more than most. There may be other environmental factors that have changed or perhaps something like the bees that liked them were killed off so pollination was almost non existent. Just seems kinda weird that they're all gone but for the ones in the small area.

5

I would think that seeds from the Florida peninsula are still following the gulf stream to coastal NC. If Coconuts can travel the gulf stream 2,000 miles to the U.K, then I am almost certain that Sabal palmetto seeds are still traveling from Florida to the Carolinas. The big question is are Sabal palmettos seeds still reaching the North Carolina coastline, and if so, why aren't they becoming established in our ecosystems? 

I am certain that New Hanover County has some stands of Sabal palmetto, just nobody has verified them to be native or just naturalized. I have even seen naturalized Sabal palmettos in Greenville and in the surrounding counties, proving that this palm can complete its life cycle far inland in the state. Similar to my example with coconuts in the U.K; coconuts have made it to NC and germinated, yet dying quickly from the cold.

The records of Sabal palmetto from Curtis undisputably state that Sabal palmetto was overharvested for its edible bud. I agree that it seems unlikely for complete extirpation from the Cape, but it is possible. Sabal palmetto, especially in NC, is extremely slow growing so overharvesting to the point of extirpation seems very well possible. One thing to point out is that most of Eastern North Carolina still remains underdeveloped. There are so many islands and wetland that still have never been thoroughly searched. It is possible that Sabal palmetto may be thriving where we never looked before. 

Curtis (1883) reports that "Cape Hatteras is, or was, the northern limit of this Palm... It is to be deeply regretted, however, that a reckless indifference to the future, which has been charged as a characteristic of Americans, is likely to efface, at no very distant time, every vestige of this interesting ornament of our coast. The inner portion of the young plant is very tender and palatable, somewhat resembling the Artichoke and Cabbage in taste (hence its name of Cabbage Tree), and is often taken for pickling, and the stock is ruined by the process. Thus for a pound or two of pickles, no better either than many other kinds, the growth of half a century is destroyed in a moment, and posterity left to the wretched inheritance of vain mourning for the loss of the greatest beauty of our maritime forest."

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PalmTreeDude
1 hour ago, NC_Palms said:

I would think that seeds from the Florida peninsula are still following the gulf stream to coastal NC. If Coconuts can travel the gulf stream 2,000 miles to the U.K, then I am almost certain that Sabal palmetto seeds are still traveling from Florida to the Carolinas. The big question is are Sabal palmettos seeds still reaching the North Carolina coastline, and if so, why aren't they becoming established in our ecosystems? 

I am certain that New Hanover County has some stands of Sabal palmetto, just nobody has verified them to be native or just naturalized. I have even seen naturalized Sabal palmettos in Greenville and in the surrounding counties, proving that this palm can complete its life cycle far inland in the state. Similar to my example with coconuts in the U.K; coconuts have made it to NC and germinated, yet dying quickly from the cold.

The records of Sabal palmetto from Curtis undisputably state that Sabal palmetto was overharvested for its edible bud. I agree that it seems unlikely for complete extirpation from the Cape, but it is possible. Sabal palmetto, especially in NC, is extremely slow growing so overharvesting to the point of extirpation seems very well possible. One thing to point out is that most of Eastern North Carolina still remains underdeveloped. There are so many islands and wetland that still have never been thoroughly searched. It is possible that Sabal palmetto may be thriving where we never looked before. 

Curtis (1883) reports that "Cape Hatteras is, or was, the northern limit of this Palm... It is to be deeply regretted, however, that a reckless indifference to the future, which has been charged as a characteristic of Americans, is likely to efface, at no very distant time, every vestige of this interesting ornament of our coast. The inner portion of the young plant is very tender and palatable, somewhat resembling the Artichoke and Cabbage in taste (hence its name of Cabbage Tree), and is often taken for pickling, and the stock is ruined by the process. Thus for a pound or two of pickles, no better either than many other kinds, the growth of half a century is destroyed in a moment, and posterity left to the wretched inheritance of vain mourning for the loss of the greatest beauty of our maritime forest."

Here are the, what I will call famous on this forum, New Hanover County N.C. Sabal palmettos. I am not sure if you were in the thread about them or not since it was made quite a while back. 

20181219_180357.jpg

20181219_180408.jpg

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Mr.SamuraiSword
22 hours ago, NC_Palms said:

I like all the ideas. I am planning to get down the BHI in the next few months. It is late in the season to start collecting seeds but I will see what I can find. If that is unsuccessful I will return when I am certain that the seed stocks will be full in the fall. 

I already have a list of places that are suitable for restoring Sabal palmetto. It mostly is maritime forest, hammocks and in the foredunes from Cape Hatteras to BHI. I still haven't found out if Sabal palmetto was ever naturally occurring south of BHI to Myrtle Beach; along the Grand Strand. I will consider restoration there as well, only If I can find enough solid evidence proving that Sabal palmetto was once native in recent history. 

oak island has a very small native population

https://www.google.com/maps/@33.9143479,-78.2064111,3a,75y,345.52h,90.25t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1svtcUbdQqKvd8ZyGipG1MpQ!2e0!7i13312!8i6656

https://www.google.com/maps/@33.9143907,-78.2047424,3a,34y,352.16h,91.64t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1snhqjBAHs8DaxIbkK0hicVg!2e0!7i13312!8i6656

https://www.google.com/maps/@33.914404,-78.2041612,3a,29.2y,337.81h,94.7t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sUt7SIM0SsMcZ6gSGlU9yEw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656

https://www.google.com/maps/@33.914426,-78.2026855,3a,30.5y,12.87h,90.69t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sB5ceZ4UnuW1Uyyj2XHka3g!2e0!7i13312!8i6656

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NC_Palms
9 minutes ago, PalmTreeDude said:

Here are the, what I will call famous on this forum, New Hanover County N.C. Sabal palmettos. I am not sure if you were in the thread about them or not since it was made quite a while back. 

20181219_180357.jpg

20181219_180408.jpg

I was in that thread. I remember stating that I was going to search out those Sabal palmettos whenever I had the chance to see if they looked more similar to the NC or Florida variety. I am still planning on checking them out while the temperature is more comfortable.  

 

17 minutes ago, Mr.SamuraiSword said:

Those Oak Island palmettos do look native when compared to the palmettos of FL stock. Has anyone certified these populations to be native or not? 

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Jimbean

I would assume that the outer banks should be perfect for them; It should be a good meso-climate there too.

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NC_Palms
23 minutes ago, Jimbean said:

I would assume that the outer banks should be perfect for them; It should be a good meso-climate there too.

It is for the most part. The Outer Banks has some nice Sabal palmettos in areas protected from the winds. I would imagine that Sabal palmetto was once native north of Hatteras into the southernmost areas of VA beach (which is apart of the Outer Banks system). But for now, the only hard evidence of native Sabal palmetto in the Outer Banks is documation on the Cape and south. The climate is suitable throughout all of Eastern NC to allow this palm to complete it’s life cycle. 

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Jimbean
7 minutes ago, NC_Palms said:

It is for the most part. The Outer Banks has some nice Sabal palmettos in areas protected from the winds. I would imagine that Sabal palmetto was once native north of Hatteras into the southernmost areas of VA beach (which is apart of the Outer Banks system). But for now, the only hard evidence of native Sabal palmetto in the Outer Banks is documation on the Cape and south. The climate is suitable throughout all of Eastern NC to allow this palm to complete it’s life cycle. 

How easy do they naturalize there?  Do they pop up all over the place once someone has one mature palm there?

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NC_Palms
Just now, Jimbean said:

How easy do they naturalize there?  Do they pop up all over the place once someone has one mature palm there?

Sabal palmetto has naturalized throughout most of Eastern NC and in Southeastern VA. I have seen volunteers throughout the entire region. Even in Greenville, Sabal palmetto has naturalized in some of the most ecologically disturbed areas. 

I have heard people say that the cold hardiness of this palm in the seedling stage is what limits it’s range, but I disagree. Almost all of the volunteers I’ve seen went through the last brutal winter without any harm. So I am certain that the range of this species isn’t a result of climate in NC. 

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Jimbean
3 minutes ago, NC_Palms said:

Sabal palmetto has naturalized throughout most of Eastern NC and in Southeastern VA. I have seen volunteers throughout the entire region. Even in Greenville, Sabal palmetto has naturalized in some of the most ecologically disturbed areas. 

I have heard people say that the cold hardiness of this palm in the seedling stage is what limits it’s range, but I disagree. Almost all of the volunteers I’ve seen went through the last brutal winter without any harm. So I am certain that the range of this species isn’t a result of climate in NC. 

So why do you think they are not there naturally?  Do winters ever in history exceed their cold tolerance?

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NC_Palms
Just now, Jimbean said:

So why do you think they are not there naturally?  Do winters ever in history exceed their cold tolerance?

I would guess that they aren’t there anymore because of over exploitation of this palm for its edible bud and quick over development of the barrier island chains. It would be reasonable to think that Sabal palmetto once had a more inland and northern range before the last mini ice age, much farther north than VA beach.

From this past winter, I only noticed that a few of the Sabal palmetto volunteers had leaf burns from the abnormally cold January. The local populations of Sabal minor had some leaf burn as well. I don’t think it got cold enough on the Outer Banks to cause any damage to either palms. So yes, it can get cold enough to exceed their tolerance but I never ever seen a volunteer sabal palmetto die, unlike the Florida transplants. 

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Jimbean

1.) Check out the all time record lows in eastern North Carolina and Virginia.

2.) Extrapolate the data to estimate what a worst case minimum temperature map would look like (if every location had a record low at the same time).

3.) What is the cold hardiness of seedlings where, say, at least 50% survive, with the Carolina cultivar of Sabal palmetto.

4.) Study the soil conditions and rainfall in the area as well.

5.) Get information on the locations of the native populations, naturalized populations, and reports of extirpated populations (I would build a map of their locations).

6.) Overlay all of this information and that will give you a really good idea of where to plant and naturalize them.

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NC_Palms

 

29 minutes ago, Jimbean said:

1.) Check out the all time record lows in eastern North Carolina and Virginia.

2.) Extrapolate the data to estimate what a worst case minimum temperature map would look like (if every location had a record low at the same time).

3.) What is the cold hardiness of seedlings where, say, at least 50% survive, with the Carolina cultivar of Sabal palmetto.

4.) Study the soil conditions and rainfall in the area as well.

5.) Get information on the locations of the native populations, naturalized populations, and reports of extirpated populations (I would build a map of their locations).

6.) Overlay all of this information and that will give you a really good idea of where to plant and naturalize them.

Alright i’ll get the data within a few days. 

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Jimbean
On 12/19/2018, 11:43:12, NC_Palms said:

 

Alright i’ll get the data within a few days. 

Any updates?

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NC_Palms
On 12/24/2018, 10:29:12, Jimbean said:

Any updates?

Sorry for the delay, I was out of town for the holidays. 

I am currently researching what you recommended, I got permission from the NC botanical gardens to bring in any leaf samples of naturalized specimens. When I finish my report I will post it on this thread. 

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Joe NC
On 12/18/2018, 8:09:34, NC_Palms said:

I like all the ideas. I am planning to get down the BHI in the next few months. It is late in the season to start collecting seeds but I will see what I can find. If that is unsuccessful I will return when I am certain that the seed stocks will be full in the fall. 

I already have a list of places that are suitable for restoring Sabal palmetto. It mostly is maritime forest, hammocks and in the foredunes from Cape Hatteras to BHI. I still haven't found out if Sabal palmetto was ever naturally occurring south of BHI to Myrtle Beach; along the Grand Strand. I will consider restoration there as well, only If I can find enough solid evidence proving that Sabal palmetto was once native in recent history. 

I collected BHI palmetto seed during the first week of Feb in 2017.  It seemed to be an ideal time to collect as there was lots of ripe fruit on nearly all of the mature palms on the small island I was on.  I have no idea if that timing was typical, but I was worried that I wouldn't find any as the florida transplant palmetto in my yard had long since dropped its seed.  Perhaps they fruit later due to the ocean keeping them a little cooler in the spring, or there is a genetic difference, or both?  I also don't know what kind of impact the hurricane had on the seed set this year.  If I get down there again soon, I will collect a bag for your efforts.  I tossed many BHI palmetto seeds around some local wooded areas that spring.....    

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kinzyjr

@NC_Palms & @Joe NC

Thank both of you for nominating yourselves to take on this noble task.  Establishing cold hardy palms in regions of our country without any or with very few palms is one of my passions; especially our wonderful natives.  Keeping native palms, especially slow growing and hard-to-germinate ones, from being endangered may depend on work like this.  I'm planning out a protected section of my property for our native thrinax radiata and pseudophoenix sargentii down here, and I really appreciate you doing what you're doing up there.

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PalmTreeDude

You are making me want to toss some Sabal minor seed around here! I know they used to be native here. Good luck with your project! The palmetto seeds I threw here took until the next summer to pop up. 

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NC_Palms
10 hours ago, Joe NC said:

I collected BHI palmetto seed during the first week of Feb in 2017.  It seemed to be an ideal time to collect as there was lots of ripe fruit on nearly all of the mature palms on the small island I was on.  I have no idea if that timing was typical, but I was worried that I wouldn't find any as the florida transplant palmetto in my yard had long since dropped its seed.  Perhaps they fruit later due to the ocean keeping them a little cooler in the spring, or there is a genetic difference, or both?  I also don't know what kind of impact the hurricane had on the seed set this year.  If I get down there again soon, I will collect a bag for your efforts.  I tossed many BHI palmetto seeds around some local wooded areas that spring.....    

Thanks so much :greenthumb:

Today I visited Gary's Nursery and he gave me a few seeds to start. I will grow these out and plant them when they are mature in the maritime forest. When I collect the seeds, I plan on growing a few out to plant in maritime forest, alongside tossing the seeds in the woods. 

 

9 hours ago, kinzyjr said:

@NC_Palms & @Joe NC

Thank both of you for nominating yourselves to take on this noble task.  Establishing cold hardy palms in regions of our country without any or with very few palms is one of my passions; especially our wonderful natives.  Keeping native palms, especially slow growing and hard-to-germinate ones, from being endangered may depend on work like this.  I'm planning out a protected section of my property for our native thrinax radiata and pseudophoenix sargentii down here, and I really appreciate you doing what you're doing up there.

Thank you so much. Good luck with your native palm project as well. 

In North Carolina, most conservationists and foresters could care less about the Sabal palmetto and it being threatened, and a majority of people in my state don't even know we have (two) native palms. It is up to us palm nuts to restore our native Sabal palmetto and spread awareness towards restoration and education of palms either in North Carolina or anywhere else.  

3 hours ago, PalmTreeDude said:

You are making me want to toss some Sabal minor seed around here! I know they used to be native here. Good luck with your project! The palmetto seeds I threw here took until the next summer to pop up. 

 

Go for it. I have some Sabal minor seeds I can give you to help you out

 

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NC_Palms

I'll be heading down to the Wilmington area in two weeks to document possible native stands of Sabal palmetto in New Hanover County. Also I plan on visiting BHI to collect the needed seeds. I'll give more updates after my trip. 

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Jimbean

keep me updated

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NC_Palms

Today I finally made it to Kure Beach, NC and collected a few Sabal palmetto leaf samples. I want to get these samples documented somehow but I have no idea where to start with that. 

But first, here are some Sabal palmettos in the maritime hammock.  Sabal palmettos were virtually everywhere. Unfortunately, I wasn't able to see the larger specimens that I had saved from Google Maps.  I plan on going back to Kure Beach sometime next week when I am on spring break so I'll have more time for exploring. 

IMG_2147.thumb.JPG.40f5e585d9bc06e3e54d79d09aa6125a.JPGIMG_2144.thumb.JPG.1c8bf7b1202c4e860cbe2df57d0e99b7.JPGIMG_2140.thumb.JPG.02a8eb650913cff1f2d6d5cd616c2bff.JPG

 

This is one of the leaf samples I collected. I would like to get it documented somehow. If anybody knows of any universities that are open to submitting samples, please let me knowIMG_2161.thumb.JPG.44e0aef05c990affaabef6d25dd27c46.JPG 

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RaleighNC

I suggest you reach out to Alexander Krings who directs the NCSU herbarium. At one time he was cataloging the Flora of one or more parts of the Outer Banks so he might be interested. If he thinks it is worthwhile to deposit a sample in the herbarium, he could give you further information. One problem is that mature palm leaves are so huge that it is not possible to mount a whole one on a typical herbarium sheet!

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NC_Palms
15 hours ago, RaleighNC said:

I suggest you reach out to Alexander Krings who directs the NCSU herbarium. At one time he was cataloging the Flora of one or more parts of the Outer Banks so he might be interested. If he thinks it is worthwhile to deposit a sample in the herbarium, he could give you further information. One problem is that mature palm leaves are so huge that it is not possible to mount a whole one on a typical herbarium sheet!

Thank you!

 

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NC_Palms

Next week when I head back down to Kure Beach, I hope to find seeds of potential native Sabal palmettos that I will compare with seeds from BHI.  After I have undeniable proof that Sabal palmetto is native to New Hanover County,  I would like to figure out how to conserve and restore North Carolina's Sabal palmetto populations in that county and possibly elsewhere. 

 

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Jimbean

Have you finished that project that I suggested?  Do you think Rhapidophyllum hystrix can be found in North Carolina?  

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NC_Palms
21 minutes ago, Jimbean said:

Have you finished that project that I suggested?  Do you think Rhapidophyllum hystrix can be found in North Carolina?  

I have it finished. I’ll share it tomorrow since I’m on my phone right now and I have it saved on my computer. 

I don’t think that Rhapidophyllum hystrix is naturally occurring anywhere in NC as of today. I would imagine though that R. hystrix was probably once native to NC (and probably farther north) within recent history. If any of this can be proved, then it would be nice to restore R. hystrix as a native species. But unfortunately, this species of palm is threatened in habitat and it’s populations seem to be declining. I once heard that one reason why R. hystix populations are in decline is due to a loss of a vector to spread seeds. I think to keep this species alive, us humans will need to play a vital rule as a vector for seed distribution. For palm conservationists in the Deep South, the preservation of Rhapidophyllum hystrix should be a top priority. 

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NC_Palms

This is a little project that I have been drafting over the last few months. I have been researching historical archives of Sabal palmetto and the general climate. This is just a draft but soon I will write an official paper.  

Restoration of Sabal Palmetto in NC.pdf

Also, I visited Bald Head Island this past Wednesday. While I was there I collected a few seeds. I am pretty sure that the good majority of the seeds I collected came originally from the BHI populations because they were much larger than the seeds of Florida transplants. I plan to germinate these seeds to use for future restoration. 

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RaleighNC

Thanks for sharing this. I enjoyed reading it. 

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Jimbean

That's a good start! 

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NC_Palms
20 minutes ago, Jimbean said:

That's a good start! 

Thank you. I've been really busy with school and all but I plan on completing the official paper sometime within the next few weeks. 

I think we've got enough evidence proving the existence of Sabal palmetto on Cape Hatteras with recent history to go forth with restoration. The next step would be figuring out how that can be done. 

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