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TikiRick

Ganoderma hell

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NOT A TA
On 3/13/2019 at 1:54 PM, Merlyn2220 said:

The conk on the queen is on the North side, maybe a little bit NW.  I didn't see conks on the other queens or other palms in the area, not even on the dead one.  But some were obscured by pine shrubs so I'd have to stomp around in their beds to see them.   

The hotel was built around 2010, and they did recently repave the parking lot and entryway, I'm not sure if it was before or after the queens started getting sick.  Most of them looked fine until last spring.

I forgot that I took a picture of the dead queen's base, it's below.  The area around the lava rock is split and rotted, and there are several "weeping" areas on the trunk, mostly in the bottom 3-6 feet.  It's been dead for months, but there's no sign that there was ever a conk on this palm.

20190312_174454 cropped.jpg

In my research for a fungus with basidiocarp that looks more like the one in Ricks case at the start of this this thread I came across articles describing Palms being affected by the fungus Thielaviopsis paradoxa  also known as Palm trunk-rot which may be the cause of death of the first Queen at the hotel. Your mention of the weeping areas on the lower trunk and previous mention of the hotel removing dead Palms before crowns fall made me think to look up symptoms. Found this paper https://fshs.org/proceedings-o/2004-vol-117/324-325.pdf

The symptoms described for Thielaviopsis seem consistent with your observations on the dead Queen including the lack of a conk. Haven't found any documentation of coinciding cases of Ganoderma and Thielaviopsis but it may be possible that the different types of fungus can survive on the same host. So lets say the currently declining Queen with the Ganoderma conk started suffering from Thielaviopsis it may have been more susceptible to Ganoderma,  yet because the Ganoderma conk is obvious we presume that's whats killing the Palm.

Edited by NOT A TA

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Merlyn2220
34 minutes ago, NOT A TA said:

In my research for a fungus with basidiocarp that looks more like the one in Ricks case at the start of this this thread I came across articles describing Palms being affected by the fungus Thielaviopsis paradoxa  also known as Palm trunk-rot which may be the cause of death of the first Queen at the hotel. Your mention of the weeping areas on the lower trunk and previous mention of the hotel removing dead Palms before crowns fall made me think to look up symptoms. Found this paper https://fshs.org/proceedings-o/2004-vol-117/324-325.pdf

The symptoms described for Thielaviopsis seem consistent with your observations on the dead Queen including the lack of a conk. Haven't found any documentation of coinciding cases of Ganoderma and Thielaviopsis but it may be possible that the different types of fungus can survive on the same host. So lets say the currently declining Queen with the Ganoderma conk started suffering from Thielaviopsis it may have been more susceptible to Ganoderma,  yet because the Ganoderma conk is obvious we presume that's whats killing the Palm.

You may be correct on this one, I am not sure if others have the "bleeding trunk" symptoms of Thielaviopsis.  The one in the photo with the badly bleeding trunk has been dead since at least the May 2018 Google streetview image, so it's possible that the "bleeding" is an opportunistic fungus feeding on dead tissue.   The one with the conk was basically dead in May 2018, with only 1 half-alive frond and 4 other dead or dying ones.  The crown on both of them leaned over and fell off.  I'll have to roll past again to see if others have bleed marks on the trunks.

From the link, Thiophanate-methyl appears to be pretty effective on coconut seedlings and mature trees.  I was looking at a few articles online, and it looks like they tested with Dazomet with 83% success in infected oil palm stumps.  That might be another one to try, though I don't know if has any systemic action.

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NOT A TA

I was at the Post Office yesterday so based on the Thielaviopsis symptoms info I looked at what I'd previously assumed were just damage on Palm C (one with conks) and found the weeping appearance similar to the hotel specimen. So perhaps the Palms are dying of Thielaviopsis when in a weakened state (or already having dead tissue) the Ganoderma jumps in to join the party. Here's pics of Palm C trunk, no weeping symptoms noted on Palms D-E at this time. Someone did knock the new conk on Palm C off so that was disappointing.

20190318_153810_zpsr9vptg1o.jpg

20190318_153816_zpsl0807kp5.jpg

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NOT A TA
23 hours ago, Merlyn2220 said:

From the link, Thiophanate-methyl appears to be pretty effective on coconut seedlings and mature trees.  I was looking at a few articles online, and it looks like they tested with Dazomet with 83% success in infected oil palm stumps.  That might be another one to try, though I don't know if has any systemic action.

In the Coconut seedling tests done by the Florida Tropical Research center, soaking the roots with Thiophanate-methyl seemed to have worked well as a preventive. The testing of previously infected mature Cocos info is unclear whether the solution applied "cured" the palm or just killed the disease at the weeping lesions painted with the slurry. I suspect the latter based on the way results were written. No mention of bore testing or laboratory results. So does "evaluated" mean they just looked at the lesions?

"In the second trial, mature coconut palms with weeping trunk lesions were treated with either Benlate or Cleary’s3336. The fungicides were made into a slurry and painted on the lesions monthly for one year. They were evaluated after six and 12 months and found to be free of fungus."

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Merlyn2220

Saturday I went on a bike ride and stopped at the dead and dying Queens and European fan palms and they finally cut down and removed the two dead Queens.  I took pictures of the trunks, and the dying Chamaerops Humilis with an apparently healthy one in the middle of two suffering ones.  These are about 15 yards North of the Queen trunks.  I marked North and the area of the conk on one photo for reference, but I don't recall which direction was North on the other picture.  I think North is to the bottom of that photo, but there was no visible conk on that trunk so it might not be important.

I'll check back in a bit and see if either (or both) have started bleeding white gunk or developed any new visible fungi. 

20190410_175219 cropped.jpg

20190410_175310 cropped.jpg

20190410_175257 cropped.jpg

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Merlyn2220

I biked past the same group of queen palms last night and spotted some pretty telltale trunk weeps on the sick one.  This was about 8 feet away from the one they cut down in the above photos.  I didn't see any signs of a conk on this palm.  The picture sort of makes it look like a 1-sided death of the fronds (Fusarium), but up close it w as pretty symmetric death and starting from the tips of the leaflets.  The trunk had weep spots anywhere from 6' up to the 12' crown, and the tapering makes it clear the palm has been infected and suffering for many years.

If I had to guess, I'd say that this one and the others nearby were infected with Thielaviopsis at least 4 or 5 years ago.  The Ganoderma may or may not be the ultimate cause of death, since there's no way to know when that infection happened.  I'm sure they'll eventually cut this one down, so I'll check the trunk periodically for any conks.

Oddly enough, the European Fan Palm that's about 30 yards to the right of this photo did survive.  The main trunk from my March 13th 2019 post died, but the smaller offset is still alive and seems to be okay and growing.  Very strange!

20190820_172156 cropped.jpg

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NOT A TA

I was reminded by our discussion in another thread that I'd planned on an experiment which included planting a palm in the Ganoderma zonatum infested Cocos nucifera stump I've been monitoring. So I made it happen yesterday evening. If anyone's interested in the details of my findings inside the stump and the process used planting I can post them.

20190821_180926_zpswnpyjd3n.jpg

 

 

1 hour ago, Merlyn2220 said:

I biked past the same group of queen palms last night and spotted some pretty telltale trunk weeps on the sick one.  This was about 8 feet away from the one they cut down in the above photos.  I didn't see any signs of a conk on this palm.  The picture sort of makes it look like a 1-sided death of the fronds (Fusarium), but up close it w as pretty symmetric death and starting from the tips of the leaflets.  The trunk had weep spots anywhere from 6' up to the 12' crown, and the tapering makes it clear the palm has been infected and suffering for many years.

If I had to guess, I'd say that this one and the others nearby were infected with Thielaviopsis at least 4 or 5 years ago.  The Ganoderma may or may not be the ultimate cause of death, since there's no way to know when that infection happened.  I'm sure they'll eventually cut this one down, so I'll check the trunk periodically for any conks.

Oddly enough, the European Fan Palm that's about 30 yards to the right of this photo did survive.  The main trunk from my March 13th 2019 post died, but the smaller offset is still alive and seems to be okay and growing.  Very strange!

20190820_172156 cropped.jpg

The one in your pic here looks like it's a goner.

The small fan palm that was a pup may have survived if the pathogen that caused the parent decline was transferred by pruning tools. The pup was never trimmed. Another possibility might be some type of chemical the adult absorbed before the pup started.

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Merlyn2220
2 minutes ago, NOT A TA said:

I was reminded by our discussion in another thread that I'd planned on an experiment which included planting a palm in the Ganoderma zonatum infested Cocos nucifera stump I've been monitoring. So I made it happen yesterday evening. If anyone's interested in the details of my findings inside the stump and the process used planting I can post them.

The one in your pic here looks like it's a goner.

The small fan palm that was a pup may have survived if the pathogen that caused the parent decline was transferred by pruning tools. The pup was never trimmed. Another possibility might be some type of chemical the adult absorbed before the pup started.

That discussion on LB/Fusarium/etc was what reminded me to stop by and take a look at the long-suffering queens.  My guess is that they'll leave the queen there until it actually dies, thus helping it spread disease to their other palms. 

Strangely enough the small fan palm looked like it was toast in March, but the offset was there while the main trunk was dying.  After they cut off the dead main trunk the offset started growing normally and is about 2 feet tall now with 6" of trunk.  Maybe they hit the leaves with a weed killer and it was enough to kill off the main trunk but not enough to kill the entire root ball.  The main trunk was curving off to the North for at least a year, so it might be just a coincidence that the trunk started dying.

The ganoderma trunk experiment looks interesting, though the trunk might form a bowl for water to collect.  Maybe you've already accounted for that so it drains okay.

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NOT A TA
21 minutes ago, Merlyn2220 said:

That discussion on LB/Fusarium/etc was what reminded me to stop by and take a look at the long-suffering queens.  My guess is that they'll leave the queen there until it actually dies, thus helping it spread disease to their other palms. 

Strangely enough the small fan palm looked like it was toast in March, but the offset was there while the main trunk was dying.  After they cut off the dead main trunk the offset started growing normally and is about 2 feet tall now with 6" of trunk.  Maybe they hit the leaves with a weed killer and it was enough to kill off the main trunk but not enough to kill the entire root ball.  The main trunk was curving off to the North for at least a year, so it might be just a coincidence that the trunk started dying.

The ganoderma trunk experiment looks interesting, though the trunk might form a bowl for water to collect.  Maybe you've already accounted for that so it drains okay.

It was a bowl and had 8.5" of water in it. I debated a drainage hole before planting but decided against it for a couple reasons. I'll detail everything and add pics later.

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