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What's in a Botanical Name

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I was curious about the proper pronunciation and spelling of certain palms and came up with this in my search. I thought it might be helpfull.

What’s in a (Botanical) Name?

(© 1999, Robert Lee Riffle)

THE DEFINITIONS: This glossary consists of all palm and cycad genus names, and many of their specific epithets, other than most of the commemorations of persons and places--of which there are very many. The valid genus names are all in uppercase italics. I have based determinations of validity on Genera Palmarum (Uhl & Dransfield, 1987), Field Guide to the Palms of the Americas (Henderson, Galeano & Bernal, 1995) and The Palms of Madagascar (Dransfield & Beentje, 1995). The last two works revise (and invalidate) several of the genera considered valid in Genera Palmarum.

The abbreviations "(Gr.)" and "(L.)" indicate "Greek" and "Latin" respectively; and if a name partakes of both languages, the root word sequence is indicated by the order in which they occur. Other languages are spelled out.

Many binomials commemorate people’s names, especially surnames. These words are mostly missing in this glossary; to have included them would have at least doubled the size of the article. Many are easy to recognize as being given or surnames, and those that are not so easily and immediately recognized almost always have the Latin endings of

-ae, -ana, -anum, -anus,


-i, -ii

-orum (plural, indicating a family, man and wife, brothers, etc.)

A few of the commemorative names are so unknown that they have been included in the definitions (cf. "afzelii").

Binomials based on place names are about as common as those commemorating people and, again, this document would be greatly expanded were they included. These names usually have the Latin endings of

-ale, -alis

-ense, -ensis

-ica, -icum, -icus

In some instances these Latinized place names are so remote from the present day form of the name, or the place is so relatively unknown, that a definition seems warranted: cf. "taitensis."

THE PRONOUNCERS: Just as with almost all words in the English language, there is no 'one and only' correct way to pronounce botanical names. Some people say [toe-MAH-toe] and some say [t’-MAI-doe]; some people say [sAL-ix] and some say [sAI-lix] for the botanical genus name of the willow tree "Salix." Both are correct. This little opus attempts only to be a guide to the pronunciation of the binomials as spoken by an American who has been practicing for many years.

The primary stress syllable of a word in the pronouncers is indicated by upper case letters. In long botanical names, it is sometimes desirable to not only indicate the syllable that receives the primary stress but also a syllable which takes a secondary stress. For example in the following binomial "Carpentaria acuminata [kahr-pen-TAHR-ee-’] [a-kyoo´-mi-NAIT-’] the pronunciation of the specific epithet (the part of the binomial indicating the species name), "acuminata," is somewhat difficult to understand and execute if the syllable receiving a secondary stress is not indicated; one needs it to find a "rhythm" for the pronunciation in order to get a handle on its utterance. In this case it is the second syllable of the word which should receive the secondary stress and this fact is indicated by the ´ mark following the syllable. The general "rules" for the use of the pronouncers are:

In all cases there is only one syllable to be pronounced between each hyphen.

In all cases "a" is short as in the word "cat".

In all cases "e" is short as in the word "elf."

In all cases "i" is short as in the word "in."

In all cases "o" is long as in the word "open."

In all cases "u" is short as in the word "up."

In all cases "g" is hard as in the word "get."

In all cases "ow" is to be pronounced as the "ou" in the word "ouch" and not as "ow" in the word "show."

In all cases "ah" is to be pronounced as is the first vowel sound in the word "father."

In all cases "ai" is to be pronounced as the "a" in the word "able."

In all cases "ee" is to be pronounced as is the vowel sound in the word "deep."

In all cases "eye" represents the long "I" as in the word "line."

In all cases "oi" is pronounced as is the vowel sound of the word "boy."

In all cases "oo" is pronounced as is the vowel sound of the word "goo."

In all cases "th" is to be pronounced as it is in the word "thing," and not as it is in the word "the."

In all cases "y" in accompaniment with a consonant is pronounced as is the word "eye."

I have avoided using the sequences "as," "is," "do," and "to" because, for English readers, they are stumbling blocks as these sequences are pronounced [az], [iz], [doo] and [too]. In such cases the reader will find "ass," "iss," "doe" and "toe." And I have avoided using "y" to signify the sound of "eye" if the syllable is only a vowel sound--in which case it will be "eye."

The apostrophe (’) indicates a vowel sound that is very short in duration; its proper utterance is akin to the usual pronunciation of the unstressed article "a" in English speech; and it partakes also of the very short "u" sound in English. The "û" used here is equivalent to the vowel sound in the word "good" but is shorter in duration.

Alternative pronunciations as in the genus name "Costus" [KOST-ûs] or [KAHST-ûs] illustrate the dictum that there is no 'one and only' correct way to pronounce most words. This fact is also very commonly exhibited in specific epithets that end in "ata" or "ana." The specific "baileyana" is pronounced [bay-lee-YAHN-’] or [bay-lee-AN-’]; it’s completely a matter of preference. And the same is true for "mexicana:" it is pronounced either [mex-i-KAHN-’], [mex-i-KAN-’] or [mexi-KAIN-’]; and compare [ahr-jen-TAIT-’] or [ahr-jen-TAHT-’] for "argentata." The pronouncers I give are the the ones I generally indulge in--they are not written in stone.

Personal pronunciation preferences (biases): My "philosophy" of the pronunciation of a binomial is "get it over with as quickly and as easily as possible." This is why I vastly prefer the short "û" sound to the "u" sound: the former is shorter and gets one through the pronunciation quicker (and easier) than the latter. In my opinion one reason novices seem to have so much trouble making sounds out of letters in scientific names is that they agonize over them too much, drawing out the process as if it were radically different from pronouncing words with which they are familiar. English speakers do not say [ai] for the unstressed (unemphasized) article "a", nor [thee] for the unstressed article "the," nor [FOR-um] for "forum" [FOR-ûm]. The cases in which I give alternate pronunciations are indicated by a forward slash (/) separating the choices; and the one I prefer is given first.

This love of brevity in pronunciation drives me to refuse to pronounce the "ii" endings of specific epithets according to the dicta of academia. The latter staunchly defend [ee-eye'] as the proper utterance of these endings. For me this produces a sound similar to a hiccup or something only a native speaker of one of the clicking languages would be comfortable with--and it definitely slows down the pronunciation process.

The Glossary

acanthocarpa, acanthocarpum, acanthocarpus spine + fruit (Gr.) [a-kanth´-o-KAHRP-ûs]

acanthocoma, acanthocomum, acanthocomus spine + hair (Gr., L.) [a-kanth´-o-KO-m’]

acanthodes spiny (L.) [a-KANTH-o-deez / a-kan-THO-deez]

ACANTHOPHOENIX spine + date palm (Gr.) [a-kanth´-o-FEE-nix]

acanthophylla, acanthophyllum, acanthophyllus spine + leaf (Gr.) [a-kanth´-o-FYL-l’]

acaule, acaulis without a stem or trunk (L.) [a-KAW-lis]

acetosa, acetosum, acetosus sharp, acidic/sharp; sometimes alluding to shape (L.) [ass-ee-TOE-s’]

acetosella, acetosellum, acetosellus sharp/acidic + little; sometimes alluding to shape (L.) [a-see´-toe-SEL-l’]

acida, acidum, acidus acidic (L.) [ASS-i-dûm]

ACOELORRHAPHE without + hollow + needle (Gr.) [a-seel´-o-RAI-fee]

ACROCOMIA highest + tuft of hair, an allusion to the palm’s crown of prickly leaves atop the columnar trunk (Gr.) [ak´-ro-KO-mee-’]

actinia, actinium, actinius rayed, radiating like the spokes of a wheel; pointed (L.) [ak-TIN-ee-ûs]

actinophylla, actinophyllum, actinophyllus rayed + leaf (L.) [ak-tin´-o-FYL-lûm]

ACTINOKENTIA rayed + Kentia, an out-of-date name for Howea forsteriana [ak-tin’-o-KENT-ee-’

ACTINORHYTIS rayed + folded/wrinkled (L.) [ak-tin´-o-RYT-ûs]

aculeata, aculeatum, aculeatus prickly (L.) [a-kyoo´-lee-AIT-’]

aculeatissima, aculeatissimum, aculeatissimus very/most spiny (L.) [‘-kyoo´-lee-’-TIS-si-mûm]

acuminata, acuminatum, acuminatus pointed (L.) [a-kyoo´-mi-NAIT-ûm]

acutangula, acutangulum, acutangulus acute / sharp + angle (L.) [ak-yoo-TANG-yoo-l’]

acutifolia, acutifolium, acutifolius sharp + leaves (shape) (L.) [a-kyoot´-i-FO-lee-ûm]

adscendens ascending (L.) [ad-SEN-denz]

adusta, adustum, adustus burnt/blackened (L.) [a-DUST-ûs]

aemula, aemulum, aemulus imitating (L.) [EEM-yoo-lûs]

aequale, aequalis equal (L.) [EEK-w’-lis]

aequatoriale, aequatorialis of or from the equatorial regions (L.) [eek´-wi-tor-ee-AL-lis]

aeruginosa, aeruginosum, aeruginosus rusty (color) (L.) [ee-roo´-ji-NO-sûs]

aethiopia, aethiopium, aethiopius of or from Ethiopia (L.) [ee-thee-O-pee-ûm]

aethiops Abyssinia (L.) [EE-thee-ahps]

afer African (L.) [AF-’r]

affine, affinis like unto (L.) [AF-fi-nis]

afra, afer, afrum African (L.) [AF-r’]

africana, africanum, africanus of or from Africa (L.) [af´-ri-KAHN-ûs]

afzelii Latinized form of a surname [af-ZEL-ee-eye]

aggregata, aggregatum, aggregatus aggregate/clustered/compound (L.) [ag-ri-GAIT-um]

agrifolia, agrifolium, agrifolius rough + leaf (L.) [ag-ri-FO-lee-’]

AIPHANES jagged, in allusion to the ends of the leaves of most species (Gr.) [EYE-fa-neez / ah-EE-fa-neez]

alata, alatum, alatus winged (L.) [a-LAI-tûm]

alatocaerulea, alatocaeruleum, alatocaeruleus alata + caerulea (L.) [a-lai´-toe-see-ROO-lee-’]

alba, album, albus white (L.) [AL-b’]

albicans whitish (L.) [AL-bi-kanz]

albida, albidum, albidus white (L.) [AL-bi-da / al-BY-d’]

albomarginata, albomarginatum, albomarginatus white + margined (L.) [al´-bo-mar-ji-NAI-tûs]

albomaculata, albomaculatum, albomaculatus white + spotted (L.) [al´-bo-mak-yoo-LAI-tûs]

ALLAGOPTERA diverse + wings; an allusion to the plumosely arranged leaflets along the rachis (Gr.) [al´-l’-GAHP-te-r’]

ALLOSCHMIDIA varied/diverse (L.) + German surname Schmid [al´-lo-SHMID-ee-’]

alpina, alpinum, alpinus alpine (L.) [al-PYN-’]

ALSMITHIA Al + Smith [al-SMITH-ee-’]

alta, altum, altus tall (L.) [AL-t’ / AHL-t’]

alternata, alternatum, alternatus alternate/alternating (L.) [ahl-t’r-NAI-tûs]

alternifolia, alternifolium, alternifolius with leaves in alternate arrangement (L.) [al-tur´-ni-FO-lee-ûm]

altile, altilis tall (L.) [AL-ti-lis]

altifrons tall + frond (L.) [AL-ti-frahnz]

altissima, altissimum, altissimus highest, loftiest (L.) [al-TIS-si-mûs]

amabile, amabilis beautiful/loveable (L.) [a-MAHB-i-lis]

amara, amarum, amarus bitter (L.) [a-MAHR-’]

amaricaule, amaricaulis bitter + stem/trunk (L.) [am´-ah-ri-KAW-lis]

ambigua, ambiguum, ambiguus ambiguous/uncertain (L.) [am-BIG-yoo-ûs]

amethystina, amethystinum, amethystinus violet in color (L.) [am-e-THIS-ti-nûm]

amicarum of friends; referring to the Friendly Islands (Tonga Islands) (L.)

AMMANDRA sand + male (allusion obscure) [am-MAN-dr’]

amoena, amoenum, amoenus enjoyable, delightful (L.) [a-MEEN-’ / a-MOIN-’]

ampla, amplum, amplus full, large (L.) [AMP-lûs]

amplifolia, amplifolium, amplifolius ample/generous + leaf (L.) [amp-li-FO-lee-ûm]

ampullacea, ampullaceum, ampullaceus flask-shaped (L.) [amp-yoo-LAI-see-ûs]

amygdalina, amygdalinum, amygdalinus little almond, usually referring to fruit (L.) [a-mig´-d’-LYN-ûs]

andina, andinum, andinus the Andes (L.) [an-DEE-n’ / an-DY-n’]

angulare, angularis angular (L.) [ang-yoo-LAR-iss]

angusta, angustum, angustus narrow (L.) [an-GUST-’]

angustifolia, angustifolium, angustifolius narrow + leaf (L.) [an-gus´-ti-FO-lee-’]

angustifrons narrow + frond (L.) [an-GUS-ti-frahnz]

angustisecta, angustisectum, angustisectus narrow + section (L.) [an-gus´-ti-SEK-tûm]

angustissima, angustissimum, angustissimus very narrow (L.) [an-gûs-TIS-si-m’]

anomala, anomalum, anomalus anomalous (L.) [a-NAHM-’-lûs]

antillarum of or from the Antilles (L.) [an-TIL-l’-rûm / ant-i-LAR-ûm]

antioquiense, antioquiensis of or from Antioquia, a Colombian city (L.) [an´-tee-ahk-ee-EN-sis

antiquora, antiquorum, antiquorus ancient (L.) [an-ti-KWOR-ûs]

ANTONGILIA Anton + Gill [an´-tahn-GIL-ee-’]

APHANDRA combined form of Ammandra and Phytelephas [a-FAN-dr’]

appendiculata, appendiculatum, appendiculatus with a small appendage (L.) ap-pen-dik´-yoo-LAIT-ûs]

aprica, apricum, apricus in the sun/sun-loving (L.) [AP-ri-kûm]

aquatica, aquaticum, aquaticus aquatic (L.) [a-KWAHT-i-kûm]

arabica, arabicum, arabicus of or from Arabia [a-RAB-i-kûs]

arbuscula, arbusculum, arbusculus like unto a tree (L.) [ahr-BUS-kyoo-lûs]

ARCHONTOPHOENIX prince /chief + date palm (Gr.) [ahr-kahnt´-o-FEE-nix / ahr-kont´-o-FEE-nix]

ARECA Latin form of the aboriginal (southern India) name of one of the species in this palm genus [a-REEK-’ / AR-e-k’]

arecina, arecinum, arecinus diminutive of Areca (L.) [ar-e-SEE-n’]

arenaria, arenarium, arenarius sandy/growing in sandy sites (L.) [ar-e-NAR-ee-’]

ARENGA Latin form of the Malay name for one of the species [ah-RENG-’]

arenicola, arenicolum, arenicolus sand + inhabiting (L.) [ar-i-NIK-o-l’ / a-ren´-i-KO-l’]

argentata, argentatum, argentatus silvery (L.) [ahr-jin-TAHT-ûs / ahr-jen-TAIT-ûs]

argentea, argenteum, argenteus silvery (L.) [ahr-JEN-tee-’]

argenteo-guttata silver + spot (L.) [ahr-jen´-tee-o-gût-TAHT-ûs / ahr-jen´-tee-o-gût-TAI-tûs]

argenteostriata, argenteostriatum, argenteostriatus silver + stripe (L.) [ahr-jen´-tee-o-stry-AIT-ûs]

argyrata, argyratum, argyratus silvery (L.) [ahr-ji-RAI-t’]

argyreia, argyreium, argyreius silvery (Gr.) [ahr-ji-REE-’]

aristata, aristatum, aristatus bearded/bristled (L.) [ar-iss-TAHT-’ / ar-iss-TAIT-’]

armata, armatum, armatus armed; usually refers to spines or teeth (L.) [ahr-MAHT-ûs]

aromatica, aromaticum, aromaticus aromatic (L.) [ar-o-MAT-i-k’]

arundinacea, arundinaceum, arundinaceus like unto Arundo, a giant grass (L.) [a-run´-di-NAI-see-’]

asper, aspera, asperum rough (L.) [ASS-p’r]

aspidiifolia, aspidiifolium, aspidiifolius of or from Aspidistra + leaf; leaves like Aspidistra (L.) [ass-pid´-ee-eye-FO-lee-’]

asterias starlike (L.) [ass-TER-ee-ahs]

ASTEROGYNE star + female (Gr.) [ass-t’-RAH-ji-nee / ass-t’-ro-JY-nee]

ASTROCARYUM star + nut (Gr.) [ass-tro-KAHR-ee-ûm]

atro- root meaning "very" or "extremely" (L.)

atropurpurea, atropurpureum, atropurpureus very + purple (L.) [at´-ro-poor-POOR-ee-’]

atrovirens very + green (L.) [at-ro-VY-renz]

ATTALEA Latin form of the name of an ancient Turkish monarch, Attalus [at-TAI-lee-ah]

attenuata, attenuatum, attenuatus thin, attenuated (L.) [at-ten´-yoo-AIT-’]

augusta, augustum, augustus noble/majestic (L.) [aw-GUS-tûm]

aurantia, aurantium, aurantius orange (L.) [aw-RANT-ee-ûm]

aurantiaca, aurantiacum, aurantiacus orange (color) (L.) [aw-ran-TY-a-kûm]

aurantiifolia, aurantiifolium, aurantiifolius orange (color and, therefore by extension, the orange-tree) + leaf (Gr.) [aw-rant´-ee-eye-FO-lee-ûm]

aurea, aureum, aureus golden (L.) [AW-ree-’ / OW-ree-’]

auriculata, auriculatum, auriculatus like an ear (in shape) (L.) [aw-rik´-yoo-LAIT-’]

aurita, auritum, auritus ear, usually a large ear (L.) [AW-ri-tûm / OW-ri-tûm]

australasica, australasicum, australasicus Australasian (L.) [aw´-stra-LAI-zi-l’]

australe, australis of or from the south; not necessarily the continent of Australia (L.) [aw-STRAL-ee]

axillare, axillaris axillary (L.) [ax-IL-l’-ris / ax-i-LAR-iss]

azorica, azoricum, azoricus of or from the Azores (L.) [a-ZOR-i-kûm]

azurea, azureum, azureus blue (L.) [a-ZOOR-ee-ûm]

bacaba aboriginal name of the palm [bah-KAH-bah]

BACTRIS walking stick (Gr.) [bAK-tris]

baculifera, baculiferum, baculiferus cane/staff + bearing (L.)

bahiana, bahianum, bahianus of or from Bahía, a state of Brazil (L.) [bah-hee-AHN-’]

baileyana, baileyanum, baileyanus Latin form of an English surname [bai-lee-AHN-’]

BALAKA Latinized form of the aboriginal name [bah-LAHK-’]

balamophora, balamophorum, balamophorus resin + bearing (L., Gr.) [bal-’-MAHF-o-r’]

barbadensis of or from Barbados, the West Indies (L.) [bahr-b’-DEN-sis]

BARCELLA a Spanish surname [bahr-SEL-l’]

basilare, basilaris basal (L.) [ba-SIL-’-ris / bas-i-LAR-iss]

BASSELINIA Latin form of a French surname [bas-sel-LIN-ee-’]

bataua aboriginal name of the palm [bah-TOW-ah]

BECCARIOPHOENIX Latin form of Italian surname, Beccari (Odoardo), a palm expert in early 20th century + date palm (Gr.) [bek-kahr´-ee-o-FEE-nix]

beharense, beharensis of or from Behar, a southern Madagascar town (L.) [bai-ha-REN-sis]

bella pretty (L.) [bEL-l’]

BENTINCKIA Latin form of a Dutch surname [ben-TINK-ee-’]

berlandieri Latin form of a French surname [bur-LAN-dyoor-eye / bur-lan´-dee-ER-ee]

betle the Portuguese (via Malayan) name [bET-lee / BEET-lee]

bicolor of two colors (L.) [bY-kul-’r]

bicorne, bicornis two + horn (L.) [by-KOR-nis]

bidentata, bidentatum, bidentatus two + teeth (L.) [by-den-TAIT-ûm]

bidentula, bidentulum, bidentulus with two teeth (L.) [by-DENT-yoo-lûm]

bifida, bifidum, bifidus two + cleft/cut (L.) [bY-fi-da]

bifurcata, bifurcatum, bifurcatus two/twice + cleft/forked (L.) [by-fur-KAIT-’]

bijugata, bijugatum, bijugatus two/twice + joined (L.) [by-joo-GAIT-ûs]

bilimbi Latin form of the aboriginal name [bi-LIM-bee]

binata, binatum, binatus in two parts (L.) [by-NAIT-ûs]

bipennifolia, bipennifolium, bipeenifolius two + feather + leaf (L.) [by-pen´-i-FO-lee-ûm]

bipinnata, bipinnatum, bipinnatus bipinnate (L.) [by-pin-NAIT-ûs]

bipinnatifida, bipinnatifidum, bipinnatifidus two/twice + pinnate + divided (L.) [by-pin´-’-TIF-i-d’]

biserrata, biserratum, biserratus two/twice + serrate (L.) [by-ser-RAIT-’]

BISMARCKIA Latin form of a German surname [biz-MARK-ee-’]

bivittata, bivittatum, bivittatus two (double) + striped (L.) [by-vit-TAHT-’ / by-vit-TAIT-’]

blanda, blandum, blandus mild/pleasing (L.) [bLAN-d’]

BORASSUS Greek word for the date palm flower spike [bo-RAS-sûs]

BORASSODENDRON Borassus + tree [bo-ras´-so-DEN-dr’n]

botryophora, botryophorum, botryophorus grape cluster + bearing (Gr.) [bo-tree-AHF-o-r’]

BOWENIA (Stangeriaceae) Latin form of an Australian surname [bo-WEN-ee-’]

brachyclada, brachycladus, brachycladus short + branch (Gr.) [braik-ee-KLAD-ûm]

brachypoda, brachypodum, brachypodus short + foot (Latinized Gr.) [braik-ee-PO-dûm]

bracteata, bracteatum, bracteatus with bracts (L.) [brak-tee-AIT-’]

BRAHEA Latin form of Danish surname, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe [bRAH-y’ / bra-HAI-y’]

BRASSIOPHOENIX English surname, Brass + date palm (Gr.) [bras´-se-o-FEE-nix]

brevicalyx short + calyx (L., Gr.) [brev-i-KAI-lix]

brevifolia, brevifolium, brevifolius short + leaf (L.) [brev-i-FO-lee-ûs]

brevipes short + foot (stalk) (L.) [bREV-i-peez]

brevispatha, brevispathum, brevispathus short + spathe (L.) [brev-i-SPAI-thûs]

BRONGNIARTIKENTIA French surname + Kentia, an outdated name for Howea forsteriana [bron-yart´-ee-a-KENT-ee-’]

bullata, bullatum, bullatus puckered (L.) [bul-LAIT-ûs]

BURRETIOKENTIA Latin form of German surname "Burret" (Max, a 20th century palm expert) + Kentia, an out-of-date name for Howea forsteriana [bur-ret´-ee-o-KENT-ee-’]

BUTIA Portuguese corruption of an aboriginal term meaning "spiny" [bOOT-ee-’ / BYOOT-ee-’]

butyracea, butyraceum, butyraceus butterlike, referring to nut contents (Gr.) [byoo´-ti-RAI-see-’]

caerulea, caeruleum, caeruleus blue (L.) [see-ROO-lee-’]

caesia, caesium, caesius light blue (L.) [sEES-ee-ûs]

caffer Kaffir, a South African; a pejorative word (L.) [KAF-f’r]

caffra, caffrum Kaffir; a South African; a pejorative word (L.) [KAF-frûm]

cairica, cairicum, cairicus of or from Cairo (L.) [KY-ri-k’]

CALAMUS a reed (L.) [KAL-a-mûs]

calciphila, calciphilum, calciphilus lime + loving (L., Gr.) [kal-SIF-i-l’]

callistachya, callistachyum, callistachyus beautiful + spike (Gr.) [kal-lis-TAIK-ee-ûm]

callosa, callosum, callosus thick (L.) [kal-LO-s’]

CALOSPATHA beautiful + spathe (Gr.) [kal-o-SPAITH-’]

calocoma, calocomum, calocomus beautiful + hair (Gr.) [kal-o-KO-m’]

calyculata, calyculatum, calyculatus with a small calyx (Gr., L.) [ka-lik´-yoo-LAIT-’]

CALYPTROCALYX covering calyx (Gr.) [ka-lip´-tro-KAI-lix]

CALYPTROGYNE covering + female (Gr.) [ka-lip´-tro-JY-nee / [ka-lip-TRAHJ-i-nee]

CALYPTRONOMA covering + hood (Gr.) [ka-lip´-tro-NO-mah / ka-lip-TRAHN-o-m’]

CAMPECARPUS monster/monstrous + fruit (Gr.) [kamp-ee-KAHRP-ûs]

campechiana, campechianum, campechianus of or from Campeche (Mexico) (L.) [kam-pech´-ee-AHN-ûs]

campestre, campestris of or from the fields (L.) [kam-PES-tris]

campicola, campicolum, campicolus of the field(s) (L.) [kam-PIK-o-l’ / kamp-i-KO-lûs]

campylospatha, campylospathum, campylospathus curved/bent + spathe (Gr.) [[kamp´-i-lo-SPAITH-’]

canariense, canariensis from or of the Canary Islands (L.) [ka-nar´-ee-EN-sis]

candida, candidum, candidus white (L.) [kan-DEE-dûm]

capense, capensis of or from the cape (L.) [ka-PEN-sai / ka-PEN-see]

caperata, caperatum, caperatus wrinkled (L.) [kap-’-RAI-tûm]

capitata, capitatum, capitatus head; referring to growth habit (L.) [kap-i-TAI-t’ / kapi-TAHT-ûm]

capitulata, capitulatum, capitulatus small-headed (L.) [ka-pit´-yoo-LAIT-’]

caraiba of or from the Caribbean (L.) [ka-RY-b’]

carana aboriginal name of the palm [kahr-ah-NAH]

carinata, carinatum, carinatus keeled (L.) [kar-i-NAIT-’]

carnea, carneum, carneus flesh (color) (L.) [KAHR-nee-ûs]

CARPENTARIA the Australian Gulf of Carpentaria [kahr-pen-TAHR-ee-’]

CARPOXYLON fruit + wood, woody fruit (Gr.) [kahr-PAHX-i-l’n]

CARYOTA from Greek word for "nut" [kar-ee-O-t’ / kah-RY-o-t’]

caryotidea, caryotideum, caryotideus Caryota, a palm genus + like unto; allusion to leaf shape (G. & L.) [kar´-ee-o-TID-ee-’]

caryotifolia, caryotifolium, caryotifolius Caryota + leaf (Gr.) [kar´-ee-ot-i-FO-lee-’]

castanea, castaneum, castaneus chestnut, usually referrig to color (L.) [kas-TAN-ee-’]

cataractara, cataractarum, cataractarus of or from (near) acataract (L.) [kat´-a-RAK-t’-rûm / kat´-’-rak-TAHR-ûm]

catechu corrupted form of the aboriginal name of the palm [KAT-e-choo / KAT-e-kyoo]

cathayana, cathayanum, cathayanus of or from Cathay (China) (L.) [kath-ai-AHN-ûs / kat-ai-YAHN-ûm]

catinga a region in Brazil [ka-TEENG-ah]

CATOBLASTUS degenerate + embryo (Gr.) [kat-o-BLAST-ûs / kai-toe-BLAS-tûs]

caudata, caudatum, caudatus with a tail (L.) [kaw-DAI-tûm]

caudiculata, caudiculatum, caudiculatus with a short or small tail (L.) [kaw-dik’-yoo-LAIT-ûm]

caudescens bearing a trunk (root word is "caudex") (L.) kaw-DES-senz]

causiarum from a Latin word for a wide-brimmed Macedonian hat [kaw-see-AHR-ûm]

ceilanica, ceilanicum, ceilanicus of or from Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (Gr.) [sai-LAHN-i-kûm]

CERATOLOBUS horn + lobe (L.) [ser-’-TAHL-o-bûs / se-rait´-o-LO-bûs]

CERATOZAMIA (Zamiaceae) horn + Zamia, another genus of cycad (Gr.) [ser-’-toe-ZAI-mee-’ / se-rai´-toe-ZAI-mee-’]

cereifera, cereiferum, cereiferus wax-bearing (L.) [ser-ee-IF-’-rah]

cerifera, ceriferum, ceriferus wax + bearing (L.) [se-RIF-e-r’]

CEROXYLON wax candle + wood (L., Gr.) [se-RAHX-i-l’n]

CHAMAEDOREA Greek words for "dwarf/near the ground" and "a gift" [kai-mee-DOR-ee-’]

CHAMAEROPS dwarf/low-growing + shrub (Gr.) [ka-MEE-rahps]

chambira aboriginal name of the palm [chahm-BEE-rah]

CHAMBEYRONIA Latin form of a French surname [sham-bai-RO-nee-’]

chamissoniana Latin form of a French surname [ka´-mis-so-nee-AHN-’]

chaunostachys unbound/loose + spike (inflorescence) (Gr.) [chaw-no-STAIK-iss]

CHELYOCARPUS turtle + fruit (Gr.) [kee´-lee-o-KAHRP-ûs / kai´-lee-o-KAHRP-ûs]

CHIGUA (Zamiaceae) Latinized form of the aboriginal name for this genus [CHEE-gw’]

chlamydostachya, chlamydostachyum, chlamydostachyus cloak + spike (inflorescence) (Gr.) [klam´-i-doe-STAIK-ee-ûm]

chlorantha, chloranthum, chloranthus green + flower (Gr.) [klo-RANTH-ûs]

chlorotica, chloroticum, chloroticus yellow-green (L.) [klo-RAHT-i-k’]

choriophylla, choriophyllum, choriophyllus membrane + leaf (Gr.) [kor´-ee-o-FYL-l’]

chrysantha, chrysanthum, chrysanthus golden + flower (Gr.) [kri-SANTH-ûs / kry-SANTH-ûs]

chrysolepis golden + scale (Gr.) [kry-SAH-le-pis / kris-o-LEE-pis]

chrysotricha, chrysotrichum, chrysotrichus golden + hair (Gr.) [kry-SAHT-ri-k’ / kris-o-TRIK-’

CHUNIOPHOENIX Latin form of a Chinese surname + date palm (Gr.) [choo´-nee-o-FEE-nix]

ciliare, ciliaris with short hairs (L.) [sil-ee-AR-iss]

ciliata, ciliatum, ciliatus with short hairs (L.) [sil-ee-AIT-ûm]

circinale, circinalis coiled (L.) [sir-si-NAL-iss]

circumtexta, circumtextum, circumtextus around + fabric (L.) [sur-k’m-TEX-tis]

cirrhifera, cirrhiferum, cirrhiferus tendril-bearing (L.) [sir-RIF-e-r’]

citrina, citrinum, citrinus lemonlike (color and/or fragrance) (L.) [si-TREE-nûs / -si-TRY-nûs]

clara, clarum, clarus clear/bright (L.) [KLAR-’]

CLINOSPERMA bent + seed (L.) [klin-o-SPUR-m’ / klyn-o-SPER-m’]

CLINOSTIGMA bent + stigma (L.) [klin-o-STIG-m’ / klyn-o-STIG-m’]

coccigera, coccigerum, coccigerus bearing berries (Gr.) [kahk-SIJ-’rah]

coccinea, coccineum, coccineus red (L.) [kahk-SIN-ee-ûm]

COCCOTHRINAX berry + Thrinax, a palm genus (Gr.) [ko-ko-TRY-nax]

cochleata, cochleatum, cochleatus twisted/coiled/spiralled (Gk. & L.) [kahk-lee-AIT-’]

cocoides like unto Cocos (L.)

COCOS monkey; in allusion to the three depressions at one end of the nut resembling a face (L. via Portuguese) [KO-kos]

coeleste, coelestis blue (L.) [see-LES-tis]

coerulescens bluish (L.) [see-roo-LES-senz]

cohune aboriginal name of the palm [ko-HOO-nai]

coloniata, coloniatum, coloniatus colonied/in colonies (L.) [kah-lo´-nee-AIT-’ / kah-lo´-nee-AHT-a]

colorata. coloratum, coloratus colored (L.) [kahl-o-RAI-tûs / ko-lo-RAHT-ûs]

COLPOTHRINAX swelling/bulge + Thrinax, another fan-leaved palm genus (L.) [kol-po-TRY-nax]

comosa, comosum, comosus tufted (L.) [ko-MO-s’]

commune, communis common, or growing in groups (communal) (L.) [KAHM-myoo-nis / kahm-MYOO-nis]

commututa, commutatum, commutatus changeable (L.) [kahm-myoo-TAI-tûs]

comosa, comosum, comosus tufted (L.) [ko-MO-s’]

compacta, compactum, compactus compact (L.) [kahm-PAK-tûs]

compressa, compressum, compressus compressed (L.) [kahm-PRES-s’]

concentrica, concentricum, concentricus concentric/with a common center (L.) [kahn-SENT-ri-k’]

concinna, concinnum, concinnus fine/elegant (L.) [kahn-SIN-nûs]

concolor with color/colored; of the same color (L.) [KAHN-kul-’r]

condensata, condensatum, condensatus condensed (L.) [kahn-den-SAIT-’]

conferta, confertum, confertus crowded (L.) [kahn-FERT-’]

confusa, confusum, confusus confused/anomalous (L.) [kahn-FYOO-sûs]

congesta, congestum, congestus congested (L.) [kahn-JES-t’]

constricta, constrictum, constrictus constricted (L.) [kahn-STRIK-tûm]

COPERNICIA Latinized form of the surname Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer [ko-p’r-NIS-ee-’]

cordata, cordatum, cordatus heart-shaped (L.) [kor-DAIT-ûm / kor-DAHT-’]

coriacea, coriaceum, coriaceus leathery/coriaceous (L.) [kor-ee-AI-see-ûs]

corallina, corallinum, corallinus coral-colored (L.) [kor-’-LYN-’]

coralloides coral-like; referring to color (L.) & (Gr.) [kor-’-LOI-deez]

coriarea, coriareun, coriareus leathery (L.) [kor-ee-AHR-ee-’]

coronata, coronatum, coronatus crowned (L.) [kahr-o-NAIT-a / kor-o-NAHT-’]

coryne club/truncheon (L.) [ko-RY-nee]

CORYPHA Greek word for a mountain top; in allusion to the giant terminal inflorescence [ko-RYF-’ / KOR-i-fah]

costaricana, costaricanum, costaricanus of or from Costa Rica (L.) [kos-tah-REEK-’-nah]

costata, costatum, costatus ribbed (L.) [ko-STAHT-’ kahs-TAIT-’]

costatifrons ribbed + frond (L.) [kahs-TAIT-i-frahnz]

crassifolia, crassifolium, crassifolius thick + leaf (L.) [kras-si-FO-lee-’]

crassipes thick + foot (stalk) (L.) [KRAS-si-peez]

crassispatha, crassispathum, crassispathus thick + spathe (L., Gr.)

cremnophila, cremnophilum, cremnophilus suspended/hanging + love of (cliff dwelling) [krem-NAHF-i-lûs]

crenata, crenatum, crenatus scalloped (L.) [kre-NAIT-’ / kre-NAHT-’]

crenulata, crenulatum, crenulatus with small indentations/scalloped (L.) [kren-yoo-LAIT-a / kren-yoo-LAHT-’]

crepitans rattling (L.) [KRAIP-i-tanz / KREP-i-tanz]

crinita, crinitum, crinitus hairy (L.) [kri-NEET-ûm]

crispa, crispum, crispus crinkled (L.) [KRIS-p’]

cristata, cristatum, cristatus crested (L.) [kris-TAIT-ûm]

crotalifera rattle + bearing (Gr.) [kro-tah-LIF-’-r’]

cruenta, cruentum, cruentus bloody, gory (color) (L.) [kroo-ENT-ûm]

cruziana, cruzianum, cruzianus of or from a region in Argentina (L.) [kroo-see-AHN-’]

CRYOSOPHILA cold + fond of (loving) (allusion unknown) (Gr.) [kry-o-SAHF-i-l’]

crystallina, crystallinum, crystallinus crystalline (L.) [kris-t’-LYN-’]

ctenoides comb + like unto (Gr.) [te-NOI-deez]

cucullata, cucullatum, cucullatus hooded (L.) [kuk-kyoo-LAIT-ûs]

cuneata, cuneatum, cuneatus wedge-shaped; usually referring to leaf or leaflet bases (L.) [kyoo-nee-AIT-’]

cupida, cupidum, cupidus desirous (L.) [KYOO-pe-d’]

cuprea, cupreum, cupreus coppery (colored) (L.) [KYOOP-ree-’]

cuspidata, cuspidatum, cuspidatus sharp-pointed (L.) [kus-pi-DAIT-ûm]

cyanea, cyaneum, cyaneus blue (L.) [sy-AN-ee-’ / sy-AI-nee-’]

cycadifolia, cycadifolium, cycadifolius cycad + leaf; leaves like a cycad (Gr.) [sy-kad´i-FO-lee-ûs]

CYCAS (Cycadaceae) Greek name for a palm species [sY-k’s]

cyclocarpa, cyclocarpum, cyclocarpus circular + fruit (L.) [syk´-lo-KAHRP-ûm]

cylindrata, cylindratum, cylindratus cylindrical (L.) [sil-in-DRAIT-ûs]

cyclocarpa, cyclocarpum, cyclocarpus cylindrical + fruit (L., Gr.) [syk-lo-KAHRP-ûs]

cymosa, cymosum, cymosus with cymes, flower clusters in which the inner flowers open first (Latin Gr.) [sy-MO-sûs]

CYPHOKENTIA swelling/tumor + Kentia, an outdated name for Howea forsteriana [sy-fo-KENT-ee-’]

CYPHOPHOENIX swelling/tumor + date palm (Gr.) [sy-fo-FEE-nix]

CYPHOSPERMA swelling/tumor + seed (Gr.) [sy-fo-SPUR-m’]

CYRTOSTACHYS bow/arch + spike or indlorescence (Gr.) [seer-toe-STAIK-iss]

dactylifera, dactyliferum, dactyliferus finger-bearing (L.) [dak-ti-LIF-’-r’]

dactyloides hand + like unto (Gr.) [dak-ti-LOI-deez]

DAEMONOROPS devil + shrub (Gr.) [dee-MO-no-rahps / dee-MAHN-o-rahps]

dasyneura, dasyneurum, dasyneurus thick + nerve (Gr.) [das-ee-NYOO-r’ / dai-zee-NYOO-r’]

dealbata, dealbatum, dealbatus whitish (L.) [dai-al-BAHT-’]

debile, debilis weak/puny (L.) [DEB-i-lis]

decaryi Latinized form of a surname [de-KAHR-ee-eye]

decasperma, decaspermum, decaspermus ten + seed (L.) [dek-’-SPERM-’]

decipiens deceptive/false (L.) [de-SIP-ee-enz]

DECKENIA Latinized form of a Dutch surname [de-KEN-ee-’]

declinata, declinatum, declinatus bent downwards (L.) [dek-li-NAHT-’ / dek-li-NAIT-’]

decora, decorum, decorus decorative (L.) [DEK-o-rûm / de-KOR-ûs]

decumbens Creeping with ends upright (L.) [de-KUM-benz]

decurrens literally "running down;" usually applied to leafbases or leaflet bases that clasp the stem or rachis (L.) [dek-KUR-renz]

deflexa, deflexum, deflexus bent down (L.) [de-FLEX-’]

deltoidea, deltoideum, deltoideus triangular-shaped/like unto a delta (L.) [del-TOI-dee-ûm]

deltoides triangular-shaped (L.) [del-TOI-deez]

dendrophila, dendrophilum, dendrophilus tree + love of (Gr.) [den-DRAHF-i-l’ / den-dro-FYL-’]

densa, densum, densus dense (L.) [DEN-s’]

densiflora, densiflorum, densiflorus dense + flower (L.) [den-si-FLO-rûm]

dentata, dentatum, dentatus toothed (L.) den-TAIT-’ / den-TAHT-’]

DESMONCUS bond or band + hook (Gr.) [des-MAHNK-ûs]

dianeura, dianeurum, dianeurys two + nerve (L.) [dy-ah-NYOO-r’]

diaphana, diaphanum, diaphanus transparent/diaphanous/filmy (L.) [dy-AF-’nah]

dichlamydea, dichlamydeum, dichlamydeus two + cloak (garment) (Gr.) [dy-kla-MID-ee-ûs]

dichotoma, dichotomum, dichotomus divided into two parts/branching into forks (Gr., L.) [dy-KAHT-o-m’]

DICTYOCARYUM net + nut (Gr.) [dik-tee-o-KAHR-ee-ûm]

DICTYOSPERMA net (Gr.) + seed (L.) [dik-tee-o-SPER-m’]

dillatata, dillatatum, dillatatus spreading/broadened/wide (L.) [dil-l’-TAHT-ûs]

dioica, dioicum, dioicus dioecious (L.) [dy-OI-k’]

DIOON (Zamiaceae) two + egg (Gr.) [dy-O-ahn]

diplomera, diplomerum, diplomerus in two (double) parts (Gr.) [dy-PLAH-me-r’ / dip-lo-MER-’]

discolor two + color/of varying colors (L.) DIS-kul-’r]

disticha, distichum, distichus distichous, arranged in 2 vertical rows on opposite sides of a stem (L.) [DIS-ti-kûs]

divaricata, divaricatum, divaricatus spreading, diverging (L.) [di-var´-i-KAIT-’]

diversifolia, diversifolium, diversifolius different + leaf; differently or variously shaped leaves (L.) [[di-vers´-i-FO-lee-ûm]

dolicholepis long + scale (Gr.) [doe-li-KO-le-pis / doe´-li-ko-LEEP-iss]

dolomitica, dolomiticum, dolomiticus of dolomite (soil) (L.) [doe-lo-MIT-i-k’]

domestica, domesticum, domesticus domesticated/of or from the house (L.) [doe-MES-ti-kûm]

draco dragon (Gr.) [DRAI-ko / DRAH-ko]

drymophloeoides Drymophloeus + like unto (Gr.) dry-mo-FLOI-deez]

DRYMOPHLOEUS wood + bark (Gr.) [dry-MAHF-lee-ûs / dry-mo-FLEE-ûs]

dubia, dubium, dubius doubtful, dubious/uncharacteristic (L.) [DOO-bee-’]

dulcifica, dulcificum, dulcificus very sweet (L.) [dûl-SIF-e-r’]

dulce, dulcis sweet/tender (L.) [DÛL-sis]

dumetosa, dumetosum, dumetosus bushy (L.) [doo-me-TOE-sûs]

durior hard, tough (L.) [DOOR-ee-or]

DYPSIS (of unknown origin) [DIP-sis]

dyscrita, dyscritum, dyscritus bad + described (Gr., L.) [dis-KRY-tûm]

echinulata, echinulatum, echinulatus hedgehog-like (L.) [e-kin´-yoo-LAIT-ûm]

edule, edulis edible (L.) [ED-yoo-lis]

ELAEIS olive tree, referring to the oil of the fruits (Gr.) [e-LEE-iss]

elata, elatum, elatus tall (L.) [e-LAIT-ûm]

elatior tall (L.) [e-LAIT-or]

elegans elegant (L.) [EL-e-ganz]

elegantissima, elegantissimum, elegantissimus most elegant (L.) [el´-e-gan-TIS-si-mûs]

ELEIODOXA water + praise/glory/honor (Gr.) [e-lee´-o-DOX-’]

elliptica, ellipticum, ellipticus elliptic (L.) [el-LIP-ti-k’]

elongata, elongatum, elongatus elongated (L.) [ee-lahn-GAIT-ûm]

emarginata, emarginatum, emarginatus out of + margin; a notched margin (leaf) (L.) [ee-mahr-ji-NAIT-’]

ENCEPHALARTOS (Zamiaceae) in + head + bread, referring to the edible pith of the stems of some species (Gr.) [en-sef´-’-LAHR-tos]

ensiforme, ensiformis lance or sword + form (L.) [ens-i-FOR-mis]

-ense, -ensis of or from (regions)

erecta, erectum, erectus erect (L.) [e-REK-t’]

EREMOSPATHA desert /dry + spathe (Gr.) er´-e-mo-SPAITH-’]

erinacea, erinaceum, erinaceus like unto a hedgehog; spiny (L.) [er-i-NAI-see-ûs]

eriophylla, eriophyllum, eriophyllus wooly + leaf (Gr.) [er-ee-o-FYL-l’]

eriocantha, eriocanthum, eriocanthus wool + spine (Gr.) [er´-ee-o-KANTH-’]

eriopa, eriopum, eriopus wooly + foot (G.) [er-ee-O-pûs]

eriospatha, eriospathum, eriospathus wooly + spathe (modified leaflike cover of a flower spike) (Gr.) [er´-ee-o-SPAITH-’]

eriostachya, eriostachyum, eriostachyus wooly + spike (inflorescence) (Gr.) [er´-ee-o-STAIK-ûs]

erosa, erosum, erosus jagged (L.) [e-RO-s’]

erubescens blushing/reddish (L.) [er-oo-BES-senz]

eruca, erucum, erucus burning/fiery red (L.) [ER-oo-kûs / e-ROO-k’]

erumpens erupting, referring to the inflorescence (L.) [ee-RUMP-enz]

erythrophylla, erythrophyllum, erythrophyllus red + leaf (Gr.) [e-rit´-ro-FYL-lûm]

erythrostachys red + spike (Gr.) [e-rit´-ro-STAIK-iss]

esculenta, esculentum, esculentus edible (L.) [es-kyoo-LENT-’]

etonia geographic locality (Etonia Creek) in the scrubland of northern central Florida [e-TOE-nee-’]

EUGEISSONA good/correct + cornice/crown (Gr.) [yoo´-jee-SO-n’ / yoo-jee-ISS-so-n’]

euryphyllidia, euryphyllidium, euryphyllidius large + small leaf (leaflet) (Gr.) [yoo´-ree-fy-LID-ee-’]

EUTERPE a Greek mythological name [yoo-TURP-ee]

exaltata, exaltatum, exaltatus very tall (L.) [ex-ahl-TAHT-’]

excelsa, excelsum, excelsus exalted, lofty (L.) [ex-SEL-s’]

exigua, exiguum, exiguus small; inpoverished (L.) [ex-IG-yoo-ûm]

exorrhiza, exorrhizum, exorrhizus outer/outside + root (L.) [ex-o-RY-z’]

falcata, falcatum, falcatus sickle, therefore sickle-shaped (L.) [fal-KAIT-ûm]

fallax false/misleading (L.) [FAL-lax]

farinacea, farinaceum, farinaceus floury (L.) [far-i-NAI-see-’]

farinifera, fariniferum, fariniferus flour-bearing (L.) [far-i-NIF-’-rûm]

fasciata, fasciatum, fasciatus fascicled/ bound together (L.) [fas-see-AIT-’]

fasciculare, fascicularis grouped into bundles (L.) [fa-sik´-yoo-LAR-iss]

fasciculata, fasciculatum, fasciculatus fascicled/bound together (L.) [fas-sik´-yoo-LAIT-ûs]

fenestrale, fenestralis windowed (L.) [fen-e-STRAL-iss]

fernandi-regis Fernando + king; King Fernando (L.) [fer-nan´-dee-RAI-gis / fer-nan´-dee-REE-jis]

ferox fierce/brutal; very spiny (L.) [FER-ahx]

ferrea, ferreum, ferreus of iron (L.) [FER-ee-’]

ferruginea, ferrugineum, ferrugineus with rust, usually referring to color (L.) [fer-roo-JIN-ee-ûs]

fibrosa, fibrosum, fibrosus fibrous (L.) [fy-BRO-s’]

filamentosa, filamentosum, filamentosus with filaments/threads (L.) [fil-’-men-TOE-sûm]

filare, filaris threadlike (L.) [FI-l’-ris / fi-LAR-iss]

filicifolia, filicifolium, filicifolius fern + leaf (L.) [fi-lis´-i-FO-lee-’]

filifera, filiferum, filiferus thread + bearing (L. & Gr.) [fi-LIF-’-rûm]

filiforme, filiformis thread + form (L.) [fil-i-FOR-mis]

fissifrons split + frond (L.) [FIS-si-frahnz]

fistula, fistulum, fistulus hollow, tubelike (L.) [FIS-tyoo-l’]

fistulosa, fistulosum, fistulosus hollow/tubed (L.) [fis-tyoo-LO-sûm]

flabellifer fan-bearing (L.) [fla-BEL-li-f’r]

flabellata, flabellatum, flabellatus fanned/fan-shaped (L.) [fla-bel-LAIT-ûs / fla-bel-LAHT-’]

flagelliforme, flagelliformis whip + form (L.) [fla-jel´-li-FOR-mis]

flammea, flammeum, flammeus flame (colored) (L.) [FLAM-mee-’]

flava, flavum, flavus yellow (L.) [FLAI-vûs / FLAH-v’]

flavescens yellowish (L.) [fla-VES-senz]

flavicoma, flavicomum, flavicomus yellow + hair (L.) [flav-i-KO-m’]

flavida, flavidum, flavidus yellow (L.) [FLA-vi-dûm]

flavovirens yellow + green (L.) [flai-vo-VY-renz]

flexicaule, flexicaulis flexible + stem (L.) [flex-i-KAW-lis]

flexuosa, flexuosum, flexuosus irregular/without direction/flexed/bent (L.) [flex-yoo-O-s’]

floribunda, floribundum, floribundus floriferous/free-flowering (L.) [flor-i-BUN-dûs]

floridana, floridanum, floridanus flowery (L.) [flor-i-DAI-n’ / flor-i-DAHN-’]

foetida, foetidum, foetidus fetid / stinking (L.) [FET-i-d’ / FOI-ti-d’ / fee-TY-d’]

foetidissima, foetidissimum, foetidissimus most/extremely fetid (L.) [fet-i-DIS-si-m’]

foliata, foliatum, foliatus with leaves (L.) [fo-lee-AIT-ûs]

forficata, forficatum, forficatus lance-shaped (L.) [for-fi-KAIT-’]

formosa, formosum, formosus beautiful (L.) [for-MO-sûm]

formosana, formosanum, formosanus of or from Formosa (Taiwan) (L.) [for-mo-SAHN-’]

formosissima, formosissimum, formosissimus most handsome/beautiful (L.) [for-mo-SIS-si-m’]

fractiflexa, fractiflexum, fractiflexus broken + joint (L.) [frak-ti-FLEX-’]

fragrans fragrant (L.) [FRAI-granz]

fragrantissima, fragrantissimum, fragrantissimus most fragrant (L.) [frai-gran-TIS-si-m’]

fraxinifolia, fraxinifolium, fraxinifolius Ash Tree + leaf; leaves like an Ash (L.) [frax-´-in-i-FO-lee-’]

frutescens shrubby (L.) [froo-TES-senz]

fruticans shrubby (L.) [FROOT-i-kanz]

fruticosa, fruticosum, fruticosus shrubby (L.) [froot-i-KO-s’]

fulgens shiny (L.) [FÛL-genz / FÛL-jenz]

fulgida, fulgidum, fulgidus shining (L.) [FÛL-ji-dûs]

funifera, funiferum, funiferus cord/rope + bearing (L.) [foo-NIF-e-r’]

furcata, furcatum, furcatus cleft (L.) [fûr-KAI-tûs]

furfuracea, furfuraceum, furfuraceus mealy/downy (L.) [fur-fyoo-RAI-see-’]

fusca, fuscum, fuscus brown (L.) [FYOOS-kûm]

fuscata, fuscatum, fuscatus brown (L.) [fyoos-KAIT-’]

gamiova the aboriginal name of the palm [gah-mee-O-vah]

gasipaes Latinized form of the aboriginal name [GAS-i-peez]

GASTROCOCOS stomach/belly + Cocos (Gr.) [gas-tro-KO-kûs]

GAUSSIA Latinized form of a German surname [GOW-see-’]

gelatinosa, gelatinosum, gelatinosus gelatinous, usually referring to fruit (L.) [je-lat´-i-NO-s’]

geniculata, geniculatum, geniculatus bent/jointed (L.) [je-nik´-yoo-LAIT-’]

GEONOMA earth/ground + province (Gr.) [jee-o-NO-m’]

geonomiforme, geonomiformis Geonoma + formed (like) (L.) [jee-o-nor´-mi-FOR-mis]

gibba, gibbum, gibbus swollen (L.) [GIB-bûm]

gibbiflora, gibbiflorum, gibbiflorus swollen (fat) + flower (L.) [gib-bi-FLOR-’]

gigantea, giganteum, giganteus gigantic (L.) [jy-GANT-ee-ûm]

gigas large/gigantic (L.) [GY-gas]

glabra, glabrum, glabrus smooth and hairless; glabrous (L.) [GLAB-r’]

glabrescens bearing glabrous parts (L.) [gla-BRES-senz]

glandulifera, glanduliferum, glanduliferus gland-bearing (L.) [glan-dyoo-LIF-’-rûs]

glanduliflora, glanduliflorum, glanduliflorus gland + flower (L.) [glan´-dyoo-li-FLOR-’]

glandulosa, glandulosum, glandulosus with glands (L.) [glan-dyoo-LO-s’]

glauca, glaucum, glaucus with a bloom of a thin powdery substance, as on a plum (L.) [GLOWK-’ / GLAW-kûs]

glaucescens somewhat glaucous (L.) [glaw-SES-senz]

glaucifolia, glaucifolium, glaucifolius glaucous + foliage (leaf) (L.) [glaw-si-FO-lee-’]

glaucophylla, glaucophyllum, glaucophyllus glaucous + leaf (L.) [glaw-ko-FYL-lûm]

glomerata, glomeratum, glomeratus clustered (L.) [glahm-e-RAI-t’ / glo-me-RAHT-’]

gloriosa, gloriosum, gloriosus glorious (L.) [glor-ee-O-sûs]

glutinosa, glutinosum, glutinosus glutinous/sticky (L.) [gloo-ti-NO-s’]

GONIOCLADUS angle + branch (Gr. + L.) [go´-nee-o-KLAD-ûs]

gracile, gracilis graceful (L.) [GRAS-i-lis]

gracilior more/very graceful (L.) [gra-SIL-ee-or]

gracilipes graceful + foot (stalk) (L.) [gra-SIL-i-peez]

graminifolia, graminifolium, graminifolius grass + leaf (L.) [gra-min´-i-FO-lee-’]

grandiceps large + head (L.) [GRAN-di-seps]

grandicorne, grandicornis large + horn (L.) [gran-di-KOR-nis]

grandidens large + tooth (L.) GRAN-di-denz]

grandiflora, grandiflorum, grandiflorus large + flower (L.) [gran-di-FLO-rûm]

grandifolia, grandifolium, grandifolius large + leaf (L.) [gran-di-FO-lee-’]

grande, grandis large/spectacular (L.) [GRAN-dis]

graniticola, graniticolum, graniticolus granite + upon (soil) (L.) [gra-nit´-i-KO-lûm]

granulosa, granulosum, granulosus grainy (L.) [gran-yoo-LO-s’]

grata, gratum, gratus pleasant/charming (L.) [GRAHT-ûm]

griseoargentea, griseoargenteum, griseoargenteus gray + silver (L.) [griz"-ee-o-ahr-JENT-ee-ûm]

GRONOPHYLLUM cave + leaf (Gr.) [gro-no-FYL-lûm]

grossefibrosa, grossefibrosum, grossefibrosus gross/large/thick + fibrous (L.) [gros´-’-fy-BRO-s’]

guagara aboriginal name of the palm [GWAH-g’-rah]

GUIHAIA Latinized form of a Chinese regional name [gwee-HAH-yah]

GULUBIA Latinized form of an aboriginal Indonesian name for the palm [goo-LOO-bee-’]

guttata, guttatum, guttatus spotted (L.) [gû-TAIT-’ / gû-TAHT-ûs]

gynacantha, gynacanthum, gynacanthus woman/female + spine (Gr.) [jy-n’-KANTH-’ / gy-n’-KANTH-ûm]

HALMOOREA Latinized form of "Hal (Howard E.) Moore," late & beloved American palm botanist [hal-MOR-ee-’]

hastata, hastatum, hastatus arrow or spear-shaped (L.) [has-TAIT-’]

hecatonandra, hecatonandrum, hecatonandrus one hundred + male or anther (Gr.) [hek´-’-toe-NAN-dr’]

HEDYSCEPE sweet + cape/covering (Gr.) [hed-i-SEE-pee]

helix a spiral (Gr.) [HEE-lix]

heptagona, heptagonum, heptagonus seven + angle (Gr.) [hep-TAG-o-n’]

heteromera, heteromerum, heteromerus different/various + part (L.) [het´-e-ro-NYOO-rûm]

heterophylla, heterophyllum, heterophyllus different + leaf; differently shaped leaves on the same tree (Gr.) [het´-e-ro-FYL-l’]

HETEROSPATHE different/various + spathe (Gr.) [het´-e-ro-SPAITH-ee]

hexa- root meaning "six" (Gr.)

hexasticha, hexastichum, hexastichus six + rank (row) (Gr.) [hex-ASS-ti-kûm]

hieroglyphica, hieroglyphicum, hieroglyphicus written on (Gr.) [hy-ro-GLIF-i-l’]

hirsuta, hirsutum, hirsutus hairy (L.) [hir-SOOT-’]

hirta, hirtum, hirtus hairy (L.) [HIR-t’]

hispida, hispidum, hispidus with bristly hairs (L.) [HIS-pi-dûm]

hispidula, hispidulum, hispidulus bristly (L.) [his-PID-yoo-l’]

histrix bristly (L.) HIS-trix]

holo- root meaning "totally" (Gr.)

horizonthalonia, horizonthalonium, horizonthalonius horizontal (L.) [hahr-i-zant´-i-LO-nee-’]

horrida, horridum, horridus horrible (L.) [HAHR-i-dûm]

horridispatha, horridispathum, horridispathus horrible/horrid + spathe (L.) [hahr-rid´-i-SPAITH-a]

hospita, hospitum, hospitus host; probably an allusion to the large shag of dead leaves adhering to the trunk and in which rodents and often birds will make a nest (L.) [[HAHS-pi-dûm]

HOWEA Latinized form of the name of the island, Lord Howe Island HOW-ee-’]

humile, humilis of low stature (L.) [HYOO-mi-lis]

HYDRIASTELE water + column (Gr.) [hy-dree-ASS-t’-lee / hy´-dree-’-STEE-lee]

HYOPHORBE pig + fruit (Gr.) [hy-o-FOR-bee]

HYOSPATHE pig + spathe (Gr.) [hy-o-SPAITH-ee]

HYPHAENE woven, referring to the fibers on the fruit (Gr.) [hy-FEE-nee]

hypoglauca, hypoglaucum, hypoglaucus half (semi-)/under + glaucous (Gr.) [hy-po-GLAW-k’]

hystrix a hedgehog, therefore spiny (L.) [HIS-trix]

ignea, igneum, igneus referring to fire/red (L.) [iG-nee-ûs]

IGUANURA lizard (iguana) + tail (Gr.) [ig-wah-NYOO-r’ / ig-wah-NOO-r’]

imbricata, imbricatum, imbricatus imbricate / overlapping (L.) [im-bri-KAIT-’]

imitans imitating/resembling (L.) [iM-i-tahnz]

immersa, immersum, immersus immersed/covered (L.) [im-MUR-s’]

imperati outstanding (L.) [imp-’-RAHT-ee]

imperiale, imperialis imperial, regal (L.) [im-pir´-ee-AL-iss]

inaequale, inaequalis unequal (L.) [in-ee-KWAHL-iss]

inajai Spanish corruption of the Brazilian aboriginal name [ee-nah-HAH-ee]

incarnata, incarnatum, incarnatus of flesh (color) (L.) [in-kahr-NAIT-’]

incisa, incisum, incisus incised/deeply cut from the margin (L.) [in-SYS-ûs]

indica, indicum, indicus of or from India (L.) [iN-di-kûm]

inerme, inermis unarmed, spineless (L.) [i-NER-mee]

inflata, inflatum, inflatus inflated/swollen (L.) [in-FLAI-t’]

ingens fiery (color) (L.) [iN-genz / IN-gainz]

inopina, inopinum, inopinus not + guess/think/expect (unexpected) (L.) [i-NO-pi-nûm / in-o-PYN-’]

insigne, insignis remarkable, distinguished (L.) [in-SIG-nee]

integrifolia, integrifolium, integrifolius leaves entire or undivided (L.) [in-teg´-ri-FO-lee-’]

interrupta, interruptum, interruptus interrupted; disjunct in distribution (L.) [in-te-RUP-t’]

ipot the aboriginal name of the palm [EE-pot]

IRIARTEA Latinized form of an Spanish surname [ir-ee-AHRT-ee’]

IRIARTELLA Iriartea + small/diminutive (L.) [ir´-ee-ahr-TEL-l’]

ITAYA a river in Perú [ee-TAH-y’]

jagus corrupted form of "gigas" (L.) [JAG-ûs / YAHG-ûs]

japonica, japonicum, japonicus of or from Japan (L.) [ja-PAHN-ik’]

jauari aboriginal name of the palm [zhow-AHR-ee]

javanica, javanicum, javanicus of or from Java (L.) [ja-VAHN-i-k’]

JOHANNESTEIJSMANNIA Latinized form of the name "Johannes Teijsmann" [yo-hahn´-es-tysh-MAHN-nee-’]

JUANIA Latinized form of Juan (Juan Fernandez Island) [WHAN-ee-’]

JUBAEA Latinized form of Juba, a king of ancient Algeria (Numidia) [joo-BEE-’]

JUBAEOPSIS Jubaea + like unto (Gr.) [joo´-bee-AHP-sis]

KENTIOPSIS like unto + Kentia, an outdated name for Howea forsteriana (L.) [kent-ee-AHP-sis]

KERRIODOXA English surname, "Kerr" + honor/praise/glory (Gr.) [ker´-ree-o-DAHX-’]

KORTHALSIA Latinized form of German surname, "Korthals" [kor-TAL-see-’]

LACCOSPADIX cistern/hole/pit + spadix (Gr.) [lak´-ko-SPAI-dix]

LACCOSPERMA cistern/hole/pit + seed (Gr. / L.) [lak´-ko-SPER-m’]

laciniosa, laciniosum, laciniosus shredded/torn (L.) [la-sin´-ee-O-s’]

lactea, lacteum, lacteus milky (L.) [LAK-tee-ûm]

laeve, laevis smooth (L.) [LEE-vis]

laevifolia, laevifolium, laevifolius smooth + leaf (L.) [lee-vi-FO-lee-;]

lagenicaule, lagenicaulis bottle + stem/trunk (L.) [lag´-’-ni-KAW-lis]

lakka Latinised form of the aboriginal name of the palm [LAHK-kah]

lanata, lanatum, lanatus wooly (L.) [la-NAHT-’]

lanceolaria, lanceolarium, lanceolarius lance-like (L.) [lans´-ee-o-LAR-ee-ûs]

lanceolata, lanceolatum, lanceolatus lance-shaped (L.) [lans´-ee-o-LAIT-’]

lancifolia, lancifolium, lancifolius lance + leaf; lance-shaped leaves (L.) [lans´-e-FO-lee-ûm]

lanuginosa, lanuginosum, lanuginosus hairy/downy (L.) [la-noo´-ji-NO-sûm]

lanigera, lanigerum, lanigerus hairy/downy (L.) [la-NIJ-e-r’]

lasiantha, lasianthum, lasianthus wool + flower (L.) [lai-zee-ANTH-ûm]

LATANIA Latinized form of the aboriginal name [lah-TAN-ee’ / la-TAIN-ee-’]

laterifolia, laterifolium, laterifolius side / lateral + flower (L.) [lat´-’-ri-FO-lee-’]

latifolia, latifolium, latifolius wide + leaf (L.) [lat-i-FO-lee-ûm]

latifrons wide + frond (L.) [LAT-i-frahnz]

latisecta, latisectum, latisectus broad + section/cut (L.) [lat-i-SEK-t’]

latispatha, latispathum, latispathus wide + spathe (L.) [lat-i-SPAITH-’]

latispina, latispinum, latispinus wide + spine (L.) [lat-i-SPYN-ûm]

laurifolia, laurifolium, laurifolius laurel + leaf (L.) [law-ri-FO-lee-a’]

LAVOIXA Latinized form of French surname [la-VWAH-y’ / la-VOIX-’]

laxiflora, laxiflorum, laxiflorus open /loose + flower (L.) [lax-i-FLOR-ûm]

leiophylla, leiophyllum, leiophyllus smooth + leaf (Gr.) [lai-yo-FYL-lûs]

leiostachys smooth + spike (inflorescence) (Gr.) [lai-yo-STAIK-iss]

lene, lenis soft; smooth (L.) [LEN-iss]

LEOPOLDINIA Latinized form of Austrian surname [lee´-o-pol-DIN-ee-’]

LEPIDOCARYUM scale + nut/seed (Gr.) [lep´-i-doe-KAHR-ee-ûm]

LEPIDORRACHIS scale + rachis (Gr.) [lep´-i-doe-RAI-kis]

lepidota, lepidotum, lepidotus scaly (L.) [lep-i-DOE-t’]

LEPIDOZAMIA (Zamiaceae) scaly + Zamia, another cycad genus (L.) [lep´-i-doe-ZAI-mee-’]

leprosa, leprosum, leprosus scaly (L.) [le-PRO-sûs]

leptocheilos thin + lip (Gr.) [lep-toe-KY-los]

leptospatha, leptospathum, leptospathus thin + spathe (Gr.) [lep-toe-SPAITH-ûs]

leptospadix thin + spadix (Gr.) [lep-toe-SPAI-dix]

leucocalyx white + calyx (Gr.) [lyook-o-KAI-lix]

leucocephala, leucocephalum, leucocephalus (white+ head (Gr.) [lyook-o-SEF-’-lah]

leuconeura, leuconeurum, leuconeurus white + nerve/vein (Gr.) [lyook-o-NYOO-rûm]

leucotricha, leucotrichum, leucotrichus yellow + hair (Gr.) [lyook-o-TRYK-’]

LICUALA Latinized form of the aboriginal name [li-KWAH-l’]

ligulata, ligulatum, ligulatus with a strap (L.) [lig-yoo-LAIT-’]

limosa, limosum, limosus muddy/marshy (environment) (L.) [li-MO-sûm]

linearifolia, linearifolium, linearifolius linear + leaf (L.) [lin´-ee-ar-i-FO-lee-ûs]

lineare, linearis linear (L.) [lin-ee-AR-ee]

lingulata, lingulatum, lingulatus tongue-shaped (L.) [ling-yoo-LAIT-a]

LINOSPADIX linear + spadix (Gr.) [lyn-o-SPAI-dix / lin´-o-SPAI-dix]

littorale, littoralis of or from the seashore (L.) [lit-toe-RAL-iss]

LIVISTONA Latinized form of an English surname [liv-i-STO-n’]

loddigesii Latinized form of a surname [lahd-di-GAI-see-eye]

LODOICEA Latinized form of French surname "Louis" [lo-DOI-see-’ / lo-doe-ISS-ee-’]

longa, longum, longus long (L.) [LAHNG-’]

longepedunculata, longepedunculatum, longepedunculatus long + peduncle (L.) [lahn´-ji-pee-dunk´-yoo-LAIT-’]

longevaginata, longevaginatum, longevaginatus long + sheathed (L.) [lahn-ji-vaj´-i-NAIT-’]

longivaginata, longivaginatum, longivaginatus long + sheathed (L.) [lahn-ji-vaj´-i-NAIT-’]

longibracteata, longibracteatum, longibractateus long + bracted (L.) [lahn´-ji-brak-tee-AIT-’]

longiflora, longiflorum, longiflorus long + flower (L.) [lahn-ji-FLO-rûm]

longifolia, longifolium, longifolius long + leaf (L.) [lahn-ji-FO-lee-’]

longipes long + foot/stalk (L.) [LAHN-ji-peez]

longerostre, longirostris long + beak (L.) [lahn-ji-RAHS-tris]

longisecta, longisectum, longisectus long + section/division (L.) [lahn-ji-SEK-t’]

longissima, longissimum, longissimus very/extremely long (L.) [lahn-JIS-si-mûs]

lontaroides like Lontarus, an old genus name for Borassus (Gr.) [lahnt-’-ROI-deez]

loriphylla, loriphyllum, loriphyllus strap + leaf (L., Gr.) [lor-i-FYL-lûm]

LOUVELIA Latinized form of a French surname [loo-VEL-ee-’]

LOXOCOCCUS angled/oblique + berry (Gr.) [lahx-o-KOK-kûs]

lucida, lucidum, lucidus bright/clear/lustrous (L.) [LOO-si-d’]

lucidifrons bright/clear + frond (L.) [loo-SID-i-frahnz]

luminosa, luminosum, luminosus luminous (L.) [loo-mi-NO-s’]

lupulina, lupulinum, lupulinus yellowish (L.) [loop-yoo-LYN-ûs]

lutea, luteum, luteus yellow (L.) [LOO-tee-’]

luteocarpa, luteocarpum, luteocarpus yellow + fruit (L.) [loo-tee-o-KAHRP-’]

luteorubra, luteorubrum, luteorubrus yellow + red (L.) [loo´-tee-o-ROO-br’]

lutescens yellow (L.) [loo-TES-senz]

luxurians luxuriant (L.) [lux-OOR-ee-ahnz]

LYTOCARYUM unbound/loosened + nut (Gr.) [ly-toe-KAHR-ee-ûm]

MACKEEA Latinized form of the surname "MacKee" (Hugh S.) [mak-KEE-’]

macracantha, macracanthum, macracanthus big + spine (Gr.) [mak-rah-KANTH-’]

macrantha, macranthum, macranthus large + flower (Gr.) [mak-RANTH-ûm]

macroacantha, macroacanthum, macroacanthus big + spine (Gr.) [mak´-ro-’-KANTH-’]

macrobotrys large + cluster (Gr.) [ma-KRAHB-o-tris / mak-ro-BO-tris]

macrocarpa, macrocarpum, macrocarpus large + fruit (Gr.) [ma-KRAHP-o-dûm]

macroclada, macrocladum, macrocladus large + branch (L.) [mak-ro-KLAD-’]

macroglossa, macroglossum, macroglossus large + tongue (Gr.) [mak-ro-GLAHS-sûm]

macroloba, macrolobum, macrolobus large + lobe (Gr., L.) [mak-ro-LO-b’]

macrophylla, macrophyllum, macrophyllus big + leaf (Gr.) [mak-ro-FYL-l’]

macrorhachis large + rachis (G.) [mak-ro-RAI-kis]

macrorrhiza, macrorrhizum, macrorrhizus large + root (Gr.) [mak-ro-RY-z’]

macrospadix large + spadix (spathe) (Gr.) [mak-ro-SPAI-dix]

macrostachys large + spike (inflorescence) (Gr.) [ma-KRAHS-t’-kis / mak-ro-STAI-kis]

MACROZAMIA (Zamiaceae) large Zamia, another cycad species (Gr.) [mak-ro-ZAI-mee-’]

maculata, maculatum, maculatus spotted (L.) [mak-yoo-LAIT-’]

maculosa, maculosum, maculosus spotted (L.) [mak-yoo-LO-sûm]

magna, magnum, magnus large (L.) [MAG-nûm]

magnifica, magnificum, magnificus magnificent (L.) [mag-NIF-i-k’]

major bigger (L.) [MAI-jor]

makeru aboriginal name of the palm [mah-KER-oo]

MANICARIA like a ssleeve (L.) [man-i-KAHR-ee-’]

manicata, manicatum, manicatus sleeved (L.) [man-i-KAIT-ûm]

mapora aboriginal name of the palm [mah-PO-rah]

maraja aboriginal name of the palm [mahr-ah-ZHAH]

margarita, margaritum, margaritus pearly (L.) [mahr-g’-REET-’]

marginata, marginatum, marginatus margined (L.) [mahr-ji-NAIT-ûs]

maripa aboriginal name of the palm [mah-REE-pah]

maritima, maritimum, maritimus of or from the sea (L.) [ma-RIT-i-m’]

marmorata, marmoratum, marmoratus mottled (L.) [mahr-mo-RAIT-ûs]

MAROJEJYA Malagasy place name [mahr-o-JAI-jy’]

MASOALA Malagasy place name [mah-so-AH-la’]

MAURITIA Latinized form of Dutch surname [maw-RIT-ee-’]

MAURITIELLA Mauritia + smaller/diminutive (L.) [maw-rit´-ee-EL-l’]

mauritiiforme, mauritiiformis formed or shaped (leaves) like species of the palm genus Mauritia (L.) [maw-rit´-ee-eye-FOR-mis]

MAXBURRETIA Max + Burret [max´-bur-RET-ee-’]

maxima, maximum, maximus largest (L.) [MAX-i-mûm]

MAXIMILIANA Latinized form of the given name of Maximilian Joseph (Bavarian king) [max´-i-mil-ee-AHN-’]

maya an allusion to the region in which the Maya lived (Mexico, Central America) [MAH-yah]

MEDEMIA literally "nobody" or "nothing"; apparently in reference to the desert to which the palm is native. (NB: I have not been able to document this application) (Gr.) [me-DEM-ee-’ / me-DEE-mee-’]

media, medium, medius median/middle/average (L.) [MEE-dee-ûs]

medica, medicum, medicus medical (L.) [MED-i-k’]

megacarpa, megacarpum, megacarpus large + fruit (L.) [meg-’-KAHRP-’]

melanacantha, melanacanthum, melanacanthus black + spine (Gr.) [mel´-’-no-KAHRP-’]

melanochaetes black + bristle (L., Gr.) [mel´-’-no-KEE-teez]

melanochrysa, melanochrysum, melanochrysus black + golden (Gr.) [mel´-’-no-KRY-sûm]

melansotele black + pith (of a stem) (L.) [mel-’-NAHS-te-lee]

metallica, metallicum, metallicus metallic (L.) [me-TAL-li-k’]

METROXYLON heart + wood (Gr.) [me-TRAHX-i-lahn]

mexicana, mexicanum, mexicanus of or from Mexico (L.) [mex-i-KAHN-’]

micrantha, micranthum, micranthus tiny + flower (Gr.) [my-KRANTH-’ / mi-KRANTH-’]

micracantha, micracanthum, micracanthus small + spine (Gr.) [myk-r’-KANTH-ûs]

microcarpa, microcarpum, microcarpus tiny + fruit (Gr.) [myk-ro-KAHRP-’]

microcarya, microcaryum, microcaryus small + nut (Gr.) [myk-ro-KAHR-ee-ûm]

MICROCYCAS (Zamiaceae) small/tiny + Cycas (Gr.) [myk-ro-SY-k’s]

microphylla, microphyllum, microphyllus small + leaf (Gr.) [myk-ro-FYL-lûs]

microspadix tiny + spadix (flower spike) (Gr.) [myk-ro-SPAI-dix]

microstrobila, microstrobilum, microstrobilus tiny + cone (Gr.) [myk´-ro-STRO-bi-lûs]

militare, militaris of soldiers/of the army; usually referring to spines (L.) [mil-i-TAHR-ee]

miniata, miniatum, miniatus red (L.) [min-ee-AHT-’]

minima, minimum, minimus smallest (L.) [MIN-i-mûm]

minor smaller (L.) [MY-nor]

minuta, minutum, minutus minute/tiny (L.) [mi-NOOT-’]

mira, mirum, mirus wonderful/amazing (L.) [MIR-ûs]

mirabile, mirabilis spectacular; wonderful (L.) [mi-RAB-i-lee]

miraguama Latinized form of the Spanish name for the palm [meer-ah-GWAH-mah]

mitriforme, mitriformis formed/shaped like a mitre (L.) [mit-ri-FOR-mis]

mitis unarmed (L.) [MIT-iss / MY-tis]

modesta, modestum, modestus modest (L.) [mo-DES-t’]

molle, mollis soft [MAHL-lis]

mollissima, mollissimum, mollissimus softest (L.) [mah-LIS-si-mûm]

monosperma, monospermum, monospermus one + seed (L.) [mo-no-SPER-m’]

monostachia, monostachium, monostachius one + spike (Gr.) [mo-no-STAI-kee-ûm]

monostachya, monostachyum, monostachyus one + spike (Gr.) [mo-no-STAI-kee-ûs]

monostachys one + spike (Gr.) [mo-no-STAI-kis]

monstrosa, monstrosum, monstrosus monstrous (L.) [mahn-STRO-s’]

montana, montanum, montanus montane, of the mountains (L.) [mahn-TAN-’]

monticola, monticolum, monticolus mountain + upon (L.) [mahn-TIK-o-l’ / mahn-ti-KO-lûs]

MORATIA Latinized form of a French surname [mo-RAT-ee-’]

mosaica, mosaicum, mosaicus colored like a mosaic (L.) [mo-ZAI-i-k’]

mucronata, mucronatum, mucronatus with a short tip (L.) [myoo-kro-NAIT-’]

multifida, multifidum, multifidus many + divided (L.) [mul-TIF-i-d’]

multiflora, multiflorum, multiflorus many + flower (L.) [mul-ti-FLOR-ûs]

multijuga, multijugum, multijugus many + yoked (L.) [mul-TI-joo-gûm]

multiplex much folded (L.) [MUL-ti-plex]

muricata, muricatum, muricatus rough (L.) [myoor-i-KAIT-ûs]

murumuru aboriginal name of the palm [moo´-roo-MOO-roo]

musicale, musicalis musical (in reference to Ravenea musicale an allusion to the sound of water) (L.) [myoo-zi-KAL-iss]

mutica, muticum, muticus blunt (L.) [MYOOT-i-k’]

MYRIALEPIS many + scale (Gr., L.) [mir-ee-’-LEEP-iss / my-ree-’-LEEP-iss]

myriantha, myrianthum, myrianthus very many + flower (Gr.) [mir-ee-ANTH-’]

myristica, myristicum, myristicus fragrant (Gr.) [my-RIS-ti-kûs]

nana, nanum, nanus small, dwarf (L.) [NA-n’]

NANNORRHOPS small + bush (Gr.) [NAN-no-rahps]

neglecta, neglectum, neglectus overlooked (L.) [ne-GLEK-tûm]

nemorosa, nemorosum, nemorosus of or from the woods/forest (L.) [nem-o-RO-s’]

NENGA Latinized form of the aboriginal name [NENG-’]

NEONICHOLSONIA new (L.) + Latinized English surname [nee´-o-nik-ol-SO-nee-’]

NEOVEITCHIA new (L.) + Veitchia [nee-o-VEECH-ee-’]

NEPHROSPERMA kidney (shape) + seed (Gr., L.) [nef-ro-SPER-m’]

nervosa, nervosum, nervosus with nerves (leaves) (L.) [ner-VO-sûm]

nigra, nigrum, nigrus black (L.) [NY-gr’]

nigrescens black (L.) [ny-GRES-senz]

nitida, nitidum, nitidus shiny, glossy (L.) [ni-TEE-d’ / ni-TY-dûm]

no the aboriginal name of the palm

nobile, nobilis notable; showy (L.) [NO-bi-lis]

NORMANBYA Latinized form of a surname [nor-MAN-bee-’]

nota, notum, notus noteworthy (L.) [NO-tûm]

nubigena, nubigenum, nubigenus cloud + genesis (L.) [noo-BIJ-e-nûs]

nubia, nubium, nubius cloud (location: cloud forest) (L.) [NOO-bee-’]

nucifera, nuciferum, nuciferus nut + bearing (L.) [noo-SIF-e-r’]

nutans nodding, pendant (L.) [NOO-tanz]

NYPA Latinized form of the aboriginal name [NEE-p’ / NY-p’]

obesa, obesum, obesus fat/thick (L.) [o-BEE-sûm]

obliqua, obliquum, obliquus oblique (L.) [o-BLIK-wûm]

oblongata, oblongatum, oblongatus oblong (L.) [ahb-alhn-GAHT-’]

obovata, obovatum, obovatus obovate in shape (L.) [ahb-o-VAIT-’]

obtusa, obtusum, obtusus blunt (L.) [ahb-TOOS-ûs]

obtusifolia, obtusifolium, obtusifolius blunt + leaf (L.) [ahb-toos´-i-FO-lee-’]

occidentale, occidentalis of or from the east (L.) [ahks-i-DENT-’-lee]

ochlandra, ochlandrum, ochlandrus ochre/yellow + stamen/anther (Gr.) [ahk-LAND-r’]

odora, odorum, odorus with odor/fragrant (L.) [o-DOR-’]

odorata, odoratum, odoratus fragrant (L.) [o-do-RAIT-ûm]

OENOCARPUS vine (wine) + fruit (Gr.) [ee-no-KARP-ûs]

officinale, officinalis official; used in a pharmacological sense (L.) [[o-fis´-i-NAL-iss]

-oides like unto (Gr.)

oleifera, oleiferum, oleiferus oil-bearing (L.) [o-lee-IF-e-r’]

oleracea, oleraceum, oleraceus a vegetable/edible (L.)

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Central Floridave

My "philosophy" of the pronunciation of a binomial is "get it over with as quickly and as easily as possible." -RLR

...then act like you know what you are talking about, and move the person to the next palm and not skip a beat.  Most people won't know what you are saying anyway...   :D

Then cfdave's philosophy is if that person knows how to say it, then let them go at it.  I'm impressed if people can speak in scientific terms.

I usually mumble through the scientific name, give the common name, and highlight where the palm is from.   Its tough to speak Greek/Latin if you don't practice it.  I get better every year.  Thanks for the list. That is in the Enc. of Cult.Palms I think.  I miss RLR on this forum!  


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Here is the rest of the list.

ovalifolia, ovalifolium, ovalifolius oval + leaf (L.) [o-val´-i-FO-lee-’]

ovata, ovatum, ovatus ovate in shape (L.) [o-VAIT-ûs]

oxycarpa, oxycarpum, oxycarpus acidic/sharp + fruit (Gr.) [ahks-i-KAHRP-ûm]

oxypetala, oxypetalum, oxypetalus sharp + petal (Gr., L.) [ahks-i-PET-’-lûs]

pachy- thick (Gr.) [pak-ee]

pachyphylla, pachyphyllum, pachyphyllus thick + leaf (Gr.) [pak-ee-FYL-l’]

pallens pale (L.) [PAL-lenz]

pallida, pallidum, pallidus pallid/pale (L.) [PAL-li-d’]

palmapina, palmapinum, palmapinus palm + pine (Pandanus-like; probably an allusion to the fruit (L.) [pahl-mi-PY-nûs]

palmata, palmatum, palmatus palmate/shaped like a hand (L.) [pahl-MAHT-ûs]

palmetto Spanish for "small palm" [pahl-MET-toe]

paludosa, paludosum, paludosus of or from swamps (L.) [pal-oo-DOE-s’]

palustre, palustris of or from the swamp (L.) [pa-LUS-tris]

paniculata, paniculatum, paniculatus with panicles; referring to the flower clusters (L.) [pa-nik´-yoo-LAIT-ûm]

paniculigera, paniculigerum, paniculigerus bearing panicles (of flowers) (Gr. + L.)

papillosa, papillosum, papillosus nipple-like (L.) [pap-i-LO-s’]

paradoxa, paradoxum, paradoxus paradoxical (L.) [par-’-DAHX-ûs]

PARAJUBAEA on/at/near (similar to) Jubaea [par-’-joo-BEE-’]

paramaca aboriginal name of the palm [pah-rah-MAHK-ah]

parva, parvum, parvus small (L.) [PAHR-v’]

parviflora, parviflorum, parviflorus small + flower (L.) [pahr-vi-FLOR-ûm]

parvifolia, parvifolium, parvifolius small + leaf (L.) [pahr-vi-FO-lee-ûm]

parvifrons small + frond (L.) [PAHR-vi-frahnz]

parvisecta, parvisectum, parvisectus small + section (cut) (L.) [pahr-vi-SEK-t’]

patens spreading (L.) [PAT-enz]

patula, patulum, patulus oen; spreading; broad (L.) [PAT-yoo-l’]

paucidentata, paucidentatum, paucidentatus few + teeth (L.) [paws´-i-den-TAIT-ûs]

pauciflora, pauciflorum, pauciflorus few + flower (L.) [paws-i-FLOR-’]

pauciramosa, pauciramosum, pauciramosus few +branches (L.) [paws´-i-ra-MO-sûs]

pecten-aboriginus comb + aborigine (L.) [pak´-ten-ab´-o-RIJ-i-nûs]

pectinata, pectinatum, pectinatus like a comb (L.) [pek-ti-NAIT-ûm]

pedata, pedatum, pedatus foot-like, usually a bird’s foot (L.) [pe-DAIT-’]

PELAGODOXA ocean + praise/glory/honor (Gr.) [pel´-’-go-DOX-’]

pellocarpa, pellocarpum, pellocarpus dark + fruit (Gr.) [pel-lo-KAHRP-ûm]

peltata, peltatum, peltatus a round shield; referring to the fact that most peltate leaves are round (L.) [pel-TAIT-ûs]

pendula, pendulum, pendulus pendent, hanging (L.) [PEN-dyoo-l’]

pendulifolia, pendulifolium, pendulifolius pendant + leaf (L.) [pen´-dyoo-li-FO-lee-’]

pentandra, pentandrum, pentandrus five + male (part of flower) (Gr.) [pen-TAN-dr’]

pentantha, pentanthum, pentanthus ten + flower (Gr.) [pen-TANTH-ûs]

perbella, perbellum, perbellus most beautiful (L.) [pur-BELl’]

petiolata, petiolatum, petiolatus with a petiole (L.) [peet´-ee-o-LAIT-ûs]

petiolulata, petiolulatum, petiolulatus with small petioles (L.) [peet´-ee-ol-yoo-LAIT-’]

petraea, petraeum, petraeus rocky, usually referring to habitat (L.) [pe-TREE-ûm]

phoenicocarpa, phoenicocarpum, phoenicocarpus date palm + fruit (Gr.) [fee´-ni-ko-KAHRP-ûm]

PHOENICOPHORIUM date palm + thief (Gr.) [fee´-ni-ko-FOR-ee-ûm]

PHOENIX classical Greek name for the date palm [FEE-nix]

PHOLIDOSTACHYS scale + spike (Gr.) [fo´-li-doe-STAIK-iss]

PHYSOKENTIA bladder + Kentia, the outdated genus name for Howea forsteriana (Gr.) [fy´-so-KENT-ee-’]

PHYTELEPHAS plant + elephant (ivory) (Gr.) [fy-TEL-e-f’s]

piassaba the aboriginal name [pee-ah-SAH-bah]

picrophylla, picrophyllum, picrophyllus bitter + leaf (Gr.) [pik-ro-FYL-l’]

picta, pictum, picta painted (L.) [PIK-tûm]

picturata, picturatum, picturatus variegated (L.) [pik-tyoo-RAIT-ûs]

PIGAFETTA Italian surname [pig-ah-FET-t’]

pilifera, piliferum, piliferus hair + bearing; bearing hairs (L.) [py-LIF-e-r’ / pi-LIF-e-rûm]

pilosa, pilosum, pilosus hairy (L.) [py-LO-sûs]

PINANGA Latinized form of the aboriginal name [pi-NANG-’]

pindobassu aboriginal name of the palm [pin´-doe-bahs-SOO]

pinnata, pinnatum, pinnatus pinnate in shape/feather-shaped (L.) [pin-NAIT-’]

pinnatifrons pinnate + frond (L.) [pin-NAT-i-frahnz]

platy- root meaning "broad" or "flat" (Gr.)

platyphylla, platyphyllum, platyphyllus broad/flat + leaf (Gr.) [plat-ee-FYL-l’]

platynema flat + thread (Gr.) [plat-ee-NEE-m’]

PLECTOCOMIA a pleat + hair (Gr.) [plek-toe-KO-mee-’]

PLECTOCOMIOPSIS like unto + Plectocomia (Gr.) [plek´-toe-ko-mee-AHP-sis]

pleioclada, pleiocladum, pleiocladus many/more + branch (Gr.) [plai-o-KLAD-ûs]

plena, plenum, plenus full (L.) [PLEN-’]

plicata, plicatum, plicatus plicate, folded, pleated (L.) [ply-KAIT-ûm]

plicatile, plicatilis folded, pleated (L.) [ply-KAIT-i-lis]

plumbea, plumbeum, plumbeus lead, alluding to color (L.) [PLUM-bee-’ / plum-BAI-ah]

plumosa, plumosum, plumosus plumose (L.) [ploo-MO-s’]

pluriflora, pluriflorum, pluriflorus many + flower (L.) [ploor-i-FLO-rûs]

plurinervia, plurinervium, plurinervius many + nerve (L.) [ploor-i-NER-vee-ûm]

poaman the aboriginal name of the palm [po-AHM-ahn]

PODOCOCCUS foot + berry (Gr.) [po-doe-KO-kos]

podophylla, podophyllum, podophyllus foot + leaf (stout/thick leaf or petiole) (Gr.) [po-doe-FYL-l’]

POGONOTIUM bearded (Gr.) [po-go-NO-tee-ûm]

polyacantha, polyacanthum, polyacanthus many + spine (Gr.) [pah´-lee-’-KANTH-ûm]

polyandra, polyandrum, polyandrus many + male (stamen) (Gr.) [pah-lee-AN-dr’]

POLYANDROCOCOS many + stamen + Cocos [pah´-lee-an´-dro-KO-kos]

polyantha, polyanthum, polyanthus many + flower (Gr.) [pah-lee-ANTH-ûs]

polygona, polygonum, polygonus many + angle (Gr.) [po-LIG-o-nûm]

polymorpha, polymorphum, polymorphus many + form (Gr.) [pah-lee-MORF-’]

polyphylla, polyphyllum, polyphyllus many + leaf (Gr.) [pah-lee-FYL-l’]

porphyrocarpa, porphyrocarpum, porphyrocarpus purple + fruit (Gr.) [por´-fee-ro-KAHRP-ûs]

porphyrophylla, prophyrophyllum, porphyrophyllus purple + leaf (Gr.) [por´-fi-ro-FYL-lûm]

praemorsa, praemorsum, praemorsus abruptly truncated (L.) [pry-MORS-’ / pree-MORS-ûs]

precatoria, precatorium, precatorius of or relating to supplication or prayer (L.) [prek-’-TOR-ee-’]

PRESTOEA Latinized form of a surname [pres-TOE-’]

princeps primary/chief (L., plural "principes" [PRIN-si-peez]) [PRIN-seps]

PRITCHARDIA Latinized form of a surname [prit-CHARD-ee-’]

PRITCHARDIOPSIS Pritchardia + like unto (Gr.) [prit-char´-dee-AHP-sis]

procera, procerum, procerus tall (L.) [PRO-se-rûs]

prolifera, proliferum, proliferus proliferous (of flowers or leaves) (L.) [pro-LIF-e-r’]

propinqua, propinquum, propinquus near; related (L.) [pro-PINK-wûm]

pruinifera, pruiniferum, pruiniferus bloom (texture) bearing (L.) [proo´-i-NIF-e-rûs]

PSEUDOPHOENIX false + Phoenix (Gr.) [soo-doe-FEE-nix]

pter Greek root meaning "wing."

pterantha, pteranthum, pteranthus wing + flower (Gr.) [ter-ANTH-ûm]

pterocarpa, pterocarpum, pterocarpus wing + fruit (Gr.) [ter-o-KAHRP-’]

pterogona, pterogonum, pterogonus wing + angle (Gr.) [ter-o-GO-nûs / te-RAHG-o-n’]

PTYCHOCOCCUS fold + berry (Gr.) [tyk-o-KO-kûs]

PTYCHOSPERMA folded + seed (Gr.) [tyk-o-SPER-m’]

pubens downy/shortly-hairy (L.) [PYOO-benz]

pubescens downy/shortly-hairy (L.) [pyoo-BES-senz]

pubigera, pubigerum, pubigerus hair/down + bearing (L.) [pyoo-BIJ-e-r’]

pulchella, pulchellum, pulchellus pretty (L.) [pûl-KEL-lûs]

pulcherrima, pulcherrimum, pulcherrimus beautiful (L.) [pûl-KER-ri-mûm]

pulchra, pulchrum, pulchrus handsome/pretty (L.) [PÛL-kr’]

pulverulenta, pulverulentum, pulverulentus powdery (L.) [pûl-ver´-oo-LENT-’]

pumila, pumilum, pumilus small/dwarf (L.) [PYOO-mi-l’]

pumos the Spanish (Mexican) name of the palm [POO-mos]

punctata, punctatum, punctatus spotted/dotted with glands (L.) [punk-TAIT-ûm]

punicea, puniceum, puniceus purplish (L.) [poo-NIS-ee-’]

purpurascens purplish (L.) [poor-pyoo-RAI-senz]

purpurata, purpuratum, purpuratus purplish (L.) [poor-pyoo-RAIT-ûs]

purpurea, purpureum, purpureus purple (L.) [poor-POOR-ee-’]

pusilla, pusillum, pusillus tiny/very small (L.) [poo-SIL-l’]

pustulata, pustulatum, pustulatus like a blister (shape) (L.) [pus-tyoo-LAIT-ûs]

puteolata, puteolatum, puteolatus pitted (L.) [pyoo´-tee-o-LAIT-ûm

pygmaea, pygmaeum, pygmaeus tiny, pygmy-like (L.) [pig-MEE-’]

pyramidale, pyramidalis pyramid-shaped (L.) pir-’-MID-’lee]

quadrangulare, quadrangularis four + angle (L.) [kwah-drang´-yoo-LAR-iss]

quadrangulata, quadrangulatum, quadrangulatus four + angle (L.) [kwah-drang´-yoo-LAIT-ûm]

quadriloculare, quadrilocularis four + compartment (L.) [kwah´-dri-lok-yoo-LAR-ee]

quinata, quinatum, quinatus of 5 parts (L.) [kwi-NAIT-’]

quinquecuspidam quinquecuspidum, quinquecuspidus five + point (L.) [kween´-kwee-KUS-pi-dûm]

racemosa, racemosum, racemosus with racemes (L.) [ras-e-MO-sûm]

racinae of or with roots (L.) [RAS-i-nee]

radiata, radiatum, radiatus rayed/radiating (L.) [rai-dee-AHT-ûm]

radicale, radicalis of or from a root (L.) rad-i-KAL-ee]

radicans rooting, usually referring to the stem (L.) [RAI-di-kanz]

ramosa, ramosum, ramosus branched (L.) [ra-MO-s’]

RAPHIA needle (Gr.) [RAF-ee-’]

RAVENEA Latinized form of a French surname [ra-VEN-ee-’]

reclinata, reclinatum, reclinatus reclined/leaning (L.) rek-li-NAHT-’]

rectispina, rectispinum, rectispinus erect + spine (L.) [rek-ti-SPYN-’]

recurvata, recurvatum, recurvatus recurved/bent backwards (L.) [rek-yoor-VAIT-ûs]

recurvifolia, recurvifolium, recurvifolius recurved + leaf (L.) re-kur´-vi-FO-lee-ûm]

reflexa, reflexum, reflexus reflexed/bent backwards (L.) [re-FLEX-ûs]

regale, regalis regal (L.) [REE-g’-lis]

regia, regium, regius royal (L.) [RAI-gee-ûm [REE-gee-’]

reginae queenly (L.) [re-JY-nee / RAI-gi-ny]

REINHARDTIA Latinized form of a Danish surname [ryn-HART-ee-’]

religiosa, religiosum, religiosus religious; allusion to the plant’s being revered (L.) [re-li´-jee-O-s’]

remota, remotum, remotus remote (geographically (L.) [ree-MO-t’]

renda the aboriginal name of the palm [REN-dah]

repens spreading, creeping (L.) [REE-penz]

reptans spreading, creeping [REP-tanz]

reticulata, reticulatum, reticulatus resembling a net (L.) [re-tik´-yoo-LAIT-’]

RETISPATHA net + spathe (Gr.) ret-i-SPAITH-’]

retroflorescens backward + flowering (L.) [ret´-ro-flo-RES-senz]

retrofracta, retrofractum, retrofractus reverse + broken; bent back on itself (L.) [ret-ro-FRAK-trûm]

retusa, retusum, retusus rounded and notched tip (L.) [re-TOOS-’]

revoluta, revolutum, revolutus turned under/revolute (L.) [re-vo-LOO-tûm]

rex king (L.)

rhapidacantha, rhapidacanthum, rhapidacanthus needle + spine (Gr.) [rap´-i-d’-KANTH-ûm]

RHAPIDOPHYLLUM needle + leaf (Gr.) [rap´-i-doe-FYL-lûm]

RHAPIS needle (Gr.) [RAP-iss]

rhizomatosa, rhizomatosum, rhizomatosus with rhizomes (Latinized Gr.) [ry-zo´-ma-TOE-sûs]

rhombea, rhombeum, rhombeus diamond-shaped (L.) [RAHM-bee-’]

rhombifolia, rhombifolium, rhombifolius rhombus + leaf; rhomboid-shaped (Gr. & L.) [rahm-bi-FO-lee-ûs]

rhombipilosa, rhombipilosum, rhombipilosus diamond-shaped + hairy (L.) [rahm´-bi-py-LO-sûs]

RHOPALOBLASTE club + embryo (Gr.) [rop´-’-lo-BLAS-tee]

RHOPALOSTYLIS club + pillar (style) (Gr.) [rop´-’-lo-STY-lis]

rigida, rigidum, rigidus rigid (L.) [RIJ-i-d’]

riparia, riparium, riparius of or from a riverbank (L.) [ri-PAR-ee-ûs]

rivale, rivalis of or from a stream or river (L.) [RIV-’-lee]

rivulare, rivularis of or from a stream or river (L.) [riv-yoo-LAR-iss]

robusta, robustum, robustus robust (L.) [ro-BUS-t’]

ROSCHERIA Latinized form of a German surname [rah-SHER-ee-’]

rosea, roseum, roseus rosy (L.) [RO-zee-ûm / ro-ZAI-’]

roseo-picta (roseopicta), roseo-pictum, roseo-pictus rose + variegated (L.) [ro´-zee-o-PIK-t’]

roseospadix rose (color) + spadix (L.) [ro´-zee-o-SPAI-dix]

rostrata, rostratum, rostratus with a beak (L.) [ro-STRAHT-ûm]

rotunda, rotundum, rotundus round (L.) [ro-TUN-d’]

rotundifolia, rotundifolium, rotundifloius round + leaf (L.) [ro-tun´-di-FO-lee-’]

ROYSTONEA Latinized form of a proper name (Roy Stone) [roi-STON-ee-’]

ruber red (L.) [ROO-b’r]

rubiginosa, rubiginosum, rubiginosus red (L.) [roo-bij´-i-NO-sûs]

rubescens reddish (L.) [roo-BES-senz]

rubra, rubrum, rubrus red (L.) [ROO-br’]

rupestre, rupestris of rocks/rock-loving (L.) [roo-PES-tris]

rupicola, rupicolum, rupicolus of or from rocks/inhabiting rocky sites (L.) [roo-PIK-o-l’ / roop-i-KO-l’]

SABAL of unknown origin; possibly a Latinized form of the aboriginal name [sAI-bahl / SAH-b’l]

saccifer, saccifera, sacciferum, sacciferus bag/sac + bearing (L.) [sak-SIF-’-rûm]

sagu the aboriginal name of the palm [sAH-goo]

SALACCA Latinized form of the aboriginal name [sah-LAHK-k’]

salicifolia, salicifolium, salicifolius Salix (the willow genus) + leaf (L.) [sa--lis´-i-FO-lee-ûs]

sancona Spanish transliteration of the aboriginal name [sahn-KO-nah]

sancta, sanctum, sanctus holy/sanctified (L.) [sANK-tûs]

sanguinea, sanguineum, sanguineus deep red/blood-red (L.) [san-GWIN-ee-’]

sapida, sapidum, sapidus with a pleasing taste (L.) [sAP-i-dûm]

sarcophylla, sarcophyllum, sarcophyllus flesh + leaf (Gr.) [sahrk-o-FYL-l’]

saribus Latinized form of the aboriginal name [sAHR-i-bûs]

SATAKENTIA Form of Japanese surname + Kentia, outdated genus name for Howea forsteriana [sat-’-KENT-ee-’]

scabra, scabrum, scabrus rough (L.) [sKAB-rûs]

scandens scandent/climbing or sprawling (L.) [sKAN-denz]

SCHIPPIA Latinized form of a German surname [sHIP-pee-’]

schizocheila, schizocheilum, schizocheilus split + lip (Gr.) [skits-o-KY-Lûm]

schizophylla, schizophyllum, schizophyllus divided/cleft + leaf (Gr.) [skits-o-FYL-lûs]

sciophila, sciophilum, sciophilus shade + loving (Gr.) [sy-AHF-i-l’ / sy-o-FYL-lûm]

SCLEROSPERMA hard/dry/durable + seed (Gr.) [skler-o-SPER-m-’]

scoparia, scoparium, scoparius broom-like (L.) [sko-PAHR-ee-ûm]

sebifera, sebiferum, sebiferus wax-bearing (L.) [se-BIF-e-r’]

secunda, secundum, secundus one-sided (L.) [se-KÛN-dûm]

secundiflora, secundiflorum, secundiflorus one-sided + flower (L.) [se-kûn´-di-FLO-r’]

selvae of the selva (rain forest) (Latinized Spanish) [sEL-vee / SEL-vy]

septentrionale, septentrionalis northern (from fanciful astrological allusion) (L.) sep-ten´-tree-o-NAL-ee]

SERENOA Latinized form of an Italian given name, "Sereno" [se-REE-no-’ ser-e-NO-’]

serpyllifolia, serpyllifolium, serpyllifolius Thyme + leaf (L.) [ser-pil´-li-FO-lee-’]

serrata, serratum, serratus serrate/toothed like a saw (L.) [ser-RAIT-ûs]

serratifolia, serratifolium, serratifolius serrate + leaf (L.) [ser-rait´-i-FO-lee-’]

serrulata, serrulatum, serrulatus small-toothed, usually referring to leaf margins (L.) [ser-roo-LAIT-’]

sessilifolia, sessilifolium, sessilifolius sessile (stalkless) + leaf/leaflet (L.) [ses-si-FO-lee-ûm]

setacea, setaceum, setaceus bristly (L.) [se-TAI-see-ûs]

setigera, setigerum, setigerus bristle + bearing (L.) [se-TIJ-e-rûs]

setosa, setosum, setosus bristly (L.) [se-TOE-s’]

setulosa, setulosum, setulosus with bristles (L.) [set-yoo-LO-s’]

silvestre, silvestris (of or from forests (L.) [sil-VES-tree]

simplex simple/non-compound/unbranched (L.) [sIM-plex]

simplicifolia, simplicifolium, simplicifolius simple/undivided + leaf (L.) [sim-plis´-i-FO-lee-’]

simplicifrons simple/unbranched + frond (L.) [sim-PLIS-i-frahnz]

simplicipinna, simplicipinnum, simplicipinnus simple/undivided leaflet (pinna) [sim-plis´-i-PIN-n’]

simulans resembling/similar (L.) [sIM-yoo-lahnz]

sinense, sinensis of or from China (L.) [si-NEN-sis]

sinica, sinicum, sinicus of or from China (L.) [sIN-i-k’]

sinuata, sinuatum, sinuatus sinuate/wavy (margin) (L.) [sin-yoo-AIT-ûs]

SIPHOKENTIA tube + Kentia, outdated name for Howea forsteriana [sif-o-KENT-ee-’]

SOCRATEA Latinized for "Socrates" [so-KRAT-ee-’]

spicigera, spicigerum, spicigerus spike-bearing (L.) [spi-SIJ-e-r’]

SOMMIERIA Latinized form of a French surname [sahm-YER-ee-’]

spathacea, spathaceum, spathaceus with a spathe (L.) [spa-THAI-see-ûm]

spathellifera, spathelliferum, spathelliferus small spathe + bearing (L.) [spath-e-LIF-e-r’]

spatulifolia, spatulifolium, spatulifolius spatula + leaf (L.) [spat´-yoo-li-FO-lee-ûm]

speciosa, speciosum, speciosus specatcular / showy (L.) [spee-see-O-s’]

speciosissima, speciosissimum, speciosissimus most spectacular / most showy (L.) spee´-see-o-SIS-si-mûm]

spectabile, spectabilis spectacular (L.) [spel-TAB-i-lee]

sphaerocephala, sphaerocephalum, sphaerocephalus sphere + head (Gr.) [sfee-ro-SEF-’lûm]

spicata, spicatum, spicatus with a spike or inflorescence (L.) [spy-KAIT-ûs]

spinescens bearing spines (L.) [spi-NES-senz]

spinosa, spinosum, spinosus with spines (L.) [spi-NO-s’]

spinulosa, spinulosum, spinulosus spiny (L.) [spin-yoo-LO-sûm]

spirale, spiralis spiraled (L.) [spi-RAL-iss]

spissa, spissum, spissus crowded/thick (L.) [sPIS-s’]

splendens splendid (L.) [sPLEN-denz]

splendida, splendidum, splendidus splendid (L.) [splen-DEE-dûm]

squamosa, squamosum, squamosus scaly (L.) [skwah-MO-s’]

squarrosa, squarrosum, squarrosus spreading (L.) [skwahr-RO-s’]

STANGERIA (Stangeriaceae) Latinized form of a German surname [stan-GER-ee-’]

stans standing/erect (L.) [stahns / stanz]

stellata, stellatum, stellatus starlike (L.) [stel-LAHT-ûs]

stauracantha, stauracanthum, stauracanthus crossed/overlapping + spine (Gr.) [staw-r’-KANTH-’]

stenocarpa, stenocarpum, stenocarpus narrow + fruit (L.) [sten-o-KAHR-pûs]

stenomera, stenomerum, stenomerus narrow + part (L.) [ste-NAHM-e-r’ / sten-o-MER-ûs]

stenostachya, stenostachyum, stenostachyus narrow + spike (flower spike) (Gr.) sten-o-STAIK-ee-’]

stolonifera, stoloniferum, stoloniferus stolon + bearing (L.) [sto-lo-NIF-e-rûm]

streptophylla, streptophyllum, streptophyllus twisted + leaf (Gr.) [strep-toe-FYL-la]

striata, striatum, striatus striped, with striations (L.) [stry-AIT-ûs]

stricta, strictum, strictus erect, upright (L.) [sTRIK-tûm]

strigosa, strigosum, strigosus bristly (L.) [stry-GO-s’]

strobilacea, strobilaceum, strobilaceus cone-like (Gr.) [stro-bi-LAI-see-ûm]

suaveolens fragrant (L.) [swah-vee-O-len]

subauriculata, subauriculatum, subauriculatus somewhat like an ear (L.) [sub´-aw-rik´-yoo-LAIT-’]

subcordata, subcordatum, subcordatus less than cordate/somewhat cordate (L.) [sub´-kor-DAIT-ûs]

subtile, subtilis delicate; subtle/refined (L.) [sUB-ti-lis / SUP-ti-lis]

sundaica, sundaicum, sundaicus of or from the Sunda Islands (L.) [sûn-DAI-i-k’]

superba, superbum, superbus superb (L.) [sû-PERB-ûm]

surattense, surattensis of or from a region of Thailand (Siam) (L.) [soo-ra-TEN-sis]

surculosa, surculosum, surculosus suckering (L.) [sûrk-yoo-LO-s’]

SYAGRUS From a Latin word for some unknown palm tree [sy-AG-rûs]

sylvatica, sylvaticum, sylvaticus of the forest (L.) [sil-VAT-i-k’]

sylvestre, sylvestris of or from the woods [sil-VES-tris]

sylvicola, sylvicolum, sylvicolus forest + living in (L.) [sil-VIK-o-l’ / sil-vi-KO-lûs]

symmetrica, symmetricum, symmetricus symmetrical (L.) [sim-MET-ri-kûm

synanthera, synantherum, synantherus joined + anther (flower) (Gr.) [si-NANTH-e-r’]

SYNECHANTHUS bound/joined/united + flower (Gr.) [sin-e-KANTH-ûs]

tabulaeformae tablet + form; flat (L.) [tab´-yoo-ly-FOR-mee]

taedigera, taedigerum, taedigerus torch + bearing (L.) [tee-DIJ-e-rûs / ty-DIJ-e-r’]

taitense, taitensis of or from Tahiti (L.) [ty-TENS-ee]

TECTIPHIALA roof/covering + vessel (Gr., L.) [tek-tif´-ee-AHL-’ / tek-tif-YAHL-’]

tectora, tectorum, tectorus of or from the roofs, an allusion to the use of this palm’s leaves in thatched roofs (L.) [tek-TOR-ûm]

tegulanea, tegulaneum, tegulaneus of or from a roof (overlapping as the tiles of a roof) (L.) [teg-yoo-LAN-ee-ûm]

tenacinerve, tenacinervis strong/tough; matted + nerve (L.) [ten´-’-see-NURV-ee]

tenax strong (L.) [TEN-ax]

tenella, tenellum, tenellus tender/delicate (L.) [te-NEL-l’]

tenerrima, tenerrimum, tenerrimus very (most) tender/elegant/voluptuous (L.) [te-NER-ri-mûs]

tenue, tenuis slender/delicate/thin (L.) [TEN-yoo-iss]

tenuicaule, tenuicaulis thin + stem (L.) [ten´-oo-i-KAW-lee]

tenuissima, tenuissimum, tenuissimus very or most slender/delicate/thin (L.) [ten´-yoo-ISS-i-m’]

tenuifolia, tenuifolium, tenuifolius thin/slender + leaf (L.) [ten´-yoo-eye-FO-lee-ûm]

tenuiramosa, tenuiramosum, tenuiramosus thin + branch (L.) [ten´-yoo-eye-ra-MO-s’]

tepejilote Aztec name of the palm [tai-pai´-hee-LO-tai]

terminale, terminalis terminal (position) (L.) [tur-mi-NAL-iss]

ternatea, ternateum, ternateus of or from the Malaysian island of Ternate [ter-NAIT-ee-ûs]

tetragona, tetragonum, tetragonus four + angle (Gr.) [te-TRAG-o-n’]

tetraphylla, tetraphyllum, tetraphyllus four + leaf (Gr.) [tet-r’-FYL-lûs]

textile, textilis of or about textile, weaving (L.) [TEX-ti-lis]

thaipingense, thaipingensis of or from an area in Malaya (L.) [ty-pin-GEN-sis]

thebaica, thebaicum, thebaicus of or from Thebes in Egypt (L.) [the-BAI-i-kûm]

THRINAX fan (Gr.) [TRY-nax]

thyrsiflora, thyrsiflorum, thyrsiflorus thyrse (Gr.) (a spikelike inflorescence) + flower (L.) [thyrs-i-FLO-r’]

tigillaria, tigillarium, tigillarius with small logs (trunks) (L.) [tij-i-LAHR-ee-ûm]

tomentella, tomentellum, tomentellus with small hairs (L.) [toe-men-TEL-l’]

tomentosa, tomentosum, tomentosus wooly (L.) toe-men-TOE-sûm]

tortuosa, tortuosum, tortuosus twisted (L.) [tor-tyoo-O-s’]

totai the aboriginal name of the palm [toe-TAH-ee]

TRACHYCARPUS rough + seed (Gr.) [traik-ee-KAHRP-ûs]

transvenosa, transvenosum, transvenosus through/across + vein (L.) [trans-ve-NO-sûm]

tremula, tremulum, tremulus trembling/shaking (L.) [TREM-yoo-l’]

tri- root meaning "three" (L.)

triandra, triandrum, triandrus three + anther (L., Gr.) [try-AN-dr’]

trichostachys hair + spike (inflorescence) (Gr.) [tryk-o-STAI-kis]

trichotoma, trichotomum, trichotomus thrice divided/three-forked (L.) [try-KAHT-o-mûm]

tricolor three + color (L.) [TRY-kul-’r]

tricuspidata, tricuspidatum, tricuspidatus three + point/angle (L.) [try-kus´-pi-DAIT-ûm]

trifasciata, trifasciatum, trifasciatus three/thrice + bound; in three groups (L.) [try-fas´-see-AIT-’]

triglochin three + bristle, in reference to leaflets (L., Gr.) [try-GLAHK-in]

trigona, trigonum, trigonus three + angle (L., Gr.) [TRY-go-nûm]

trilobata, trilobatum, trilobatus three + lobe (L.) [try-lo-BAIT-ûs]

trinitense, trinitensis of or from Trinidad (L.) [tri-ni-TEN-sis]

trispinosa, trispinosum, trispinosus three + spine (L.) [try-spi-NO-s’]

TRITHRINAX three + fan (Gr.) [try-TRY-nax]

tuberculata, tuberculatum, tuberculatus tubercled (L.) [too-burk´-yoo-LAIT-ûm]

tubifera, tubiferum, tubiferus bearing a tube (L.) [too-BIF-e-r’]

tubiflora, tubiflorum, tubiflorus tube + flower (L.) [too-bi-FLOR-ûm]

turbinocarpa, turbinocarpum, turbinocarpus top (toy) + fruit (L., Gr.) [tur´-bi-no-KAHRP-ûs]

ulmifolia, ulmifolium, ulmifolius elm (Ulmus) + leaf; leaves like an elm (L.) [ûl´-mi-FO-lee-ûs]

umbellata, umbellatum, umbellatus in umbels (L.) [um-bel-LAIT-’]

umbraculifera, umbraculiferum, umbraculiferus shade (umbrella) + bearing (L.) [ûm-brak´-yoo-LIF-e-r’]

umbraculiforme, umbraculiformis umbrella + form (L.) [um-brak´-yoo-ly-FOR-mis]

undata, undatum, undatus wavy (L.) [un-DAIT-ûs]

undulata, undulatum, undulatus undulated/wavy (L.) [un-dyoo-LAIT-’]

undulatifolia, undulatifolium, undulatifolius wavy + leaf (L.) [un´-dyoo-lait-i-FO-lee-’]

uniflora, uniflorum, uniflorus one + flower (L.) [yoo-ni-FLOR-ûs]

urens stinging (L.) [YOO-renz]

uresana, uresanum, uresanus of or from Ures in northwestern Mexico (L.) [oo-re-SAHN-’]

utan aboriginal name of the palm [OO-tahn]

utile, utilis useful (L.) [YOO-ti-lee]

utriculata, utriculatum, utriculatus bladder-like (L.) [yoo-trik´-yoo-LAIT-’]

uvifera, uviferum, uviferus egg + bearing (Gr. & L.) [oo-VIF-e-r’]

vagans wandering; of wide distribution (L.) [VAI-ganz]

valida, validum, validus valid; well-developed (L.) [VAL-i-dûm]

variegata, variegatum, variegatus variegated (L.) [var´-ee-’-GAIT-ûs]

VEILLONIA Latinized form of a French surname [vai-LO-nee-’ / vai-YO-nee-’]

VEITCHIA Latinized form of a surname [VEETCH-ee-’]

velutina, velutinum, velutinus velvety (L.) [ve-LOOT-i-nûs]

venosa, venosum, venosus with veins (L.) [ve-NO-s’]

ventricosa, ventricosum, ventricosus with a bulge or swelling (L.) [ven-tri-KO-sûm]

venusta, venustum, venustus beautiful (L.) [ve-NOOS-t’]

verecunda bashful/shy; half-hidden (Sp.) [ver-e-KOON-dah]

verrucosa, verrucosum, verrucosus warty (L.) [ver-roo-KO-s’]

verruculosa, verruculosum, verruculosus with small warts (L.) [ver-rûk´-yoo-LO-sûm]

VERSCHAFFELTIA Latinized form of a Belgian surname [ver-shah-FELT-ee-’]

versicolor variously colored (L.) [VURS-i-kul-’r]

vestiaria, vestiarium, vestiarius wrapped/clothed (L.) [ves-tee-AHR-ee-’]

villosa, villosum, villosus hairy/wooly (L.) [vil-LO-s’]

viminale, viminalis wickerlike; pliable stems (L.) [vim-i-NAHL-ee]

vinifera, viniferum, viniferus wine-bearing (L.) [vi-NIF-e-r’]

violacea, violaceum, violaceus violet-colored (L.) [vee-o-LAI-see-ûm]

virens green (L.) [VY-renz]

viride, viridis green (L.) [VIR-i-dis]

viridistriata, viridistriatum, viridistriatus green + stripe (L.) [vir-id´-i-stry-AIT-’]

vittata, vittatum, vittatus striated / striped (L.) [[vy-TAIT-ûs]

volcanense, volcanensis of or from a volcano (L.) [vahl-k’-NEN-sis]

volubile, volubilis twining (L.) [vah-LOO-bi-lis]

vulgare, vulgaris common (L.) [vul-GAR-iss]

vulgata, vulgatum, vulgatus common (L.) [vul-GAIT-’]

WALLICHIA Latinized form of a surname [wahl-LIK-ee-’ / wahl-LICH-ee-’]

WASHINGTONIA Latinized form of surname "Washington" (George) [wahsh-ing-TO-nee-’]

WELFIA Latinized form of a middle German surname [WELF-ee-’]

WENDLANDIELLA Latinized form of a German surname + small (L.) [wend-lan´-dee-EL-l’]

WETTINIA Latinized form of a German surname [wet-TIN-ee-’]

winin the aboriginal name of the palm [WIN-in]

WODYETIA Latinized form of an Australian aboriginal surname [wod-YET-ee-’]

yapa Spanish form of the aboriginal name [YAH-pah]

yatay the aboriginal name of the palm [yah-TAH-ee]

zalacca the aboriginal name of the palm [zah-LAHK-k’]

ZAMIA (Zamiaceae) barren pine cone (G.) [ZAI-mee-’]

zebrina, zebrinum, zebrinus zebralike (L.) [ze-BREEN-’]

zeylanica, zeylanicum, zeylanicus of or from Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (L.) [zai-LAHN-i-kûm]

ZOMBIA Latinized form of the Carib French & Creole English word "zombie" [ZAHM-bee-’]

zonata, zonatum, zonatus zoned (with variegation) (L.) [zo-NAIT-ûs]

© 1999, Robert Lee Riffle

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Lots of useful and interesting information. Despite the very extensive list, though, I found it interesting that 'vitiense' is missing (which, I understand, means "from Fiji").

Seems like this thread should be a candidate for the new Palm FAQ sub-forum, so that it can be easily accessible. Dean?


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(bgl @ Mar. 03 2007,10:44)


Lots of useful and interesting information. Despite the very extensive list, though, I found it interesting that 'vitiense' is missing (which, I understand, means "from Fiji").

Seems like this thread should be a candidate for the new Palm FAQ sub-forum, so that it can be easily accessible. Dean?


I was thinking the same thing Bo.

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How much trouble would it be for you to duplicate your post in the PALM FAQs?

I could move it, but then it would disappear from here. Or I could copy and paste, but then you would loose the credit for and excellent contribution. In fact, I guess you could easily copy, paste and post a duplicate over there, if you would. That way people could continue to comment here, and the FAQ post could stay less "cluttered."

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Walter John

That's the exact same document I used when I started out. I would take a copy down to the city gardens at lunchtine (and this is when I realised the palm disease had set it), read it, read it, speak it quietly etc until I got the hang of botanical name pronunciation. I fully support this as a pinned piece of info for the board. :)

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(IPSPTModerator @ Mar. 03 2007,11:54)


How much trouble would it be for you to duplicate your post in the PALM FAQs?

I could move it, but then it would disappear from here. Or I could copy and paste, but then you would loose the credit for and excellent contribution. In fact, I guess you could easily copy, paste and post a duplicate over there, if you would. That way people could continue to comment here, and the FAQ post could stay less "cluttered."

That sound like a great idea. It is now posted in FAQ.

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Jeff Searle

Whewww, that was alot to read! ???


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It's fun to see the right way, after I've been slaughtering certain names :D

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I'll need a little extra time after class.

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(Jeff Searle @ Mar. 03 2007,17:50)

Whewww, that was alot to read! ???


There will be a quiz later


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Mahalo Matt  :)

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I thought vitense or vitensis, meant from the island of Vitu Levi, not sure if I remembered the island name correctly.  Is that part of the Fijian group.

I am pleased that for the most part my pronunciation seems to have been about right, but there are a few notable exceptions.  I have always pronounced Dioon [Dee-oon] and things like "coel" sounds I had pronounced [coal] or [coel as in noel] rather than [seel].

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I'm sure you're correct about that. Viti Levu is the main island in Fiji.


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Dear Matt  :)

Great work !



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(bgl @ Mar. 04 2007,05:55)


I'm sure you're correct about that. Viti Levu is the main island in Fiji.


Thanks for the clarification and sorry about my spelling/memory errors.

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(bgl @ Mar. 03 2007,10:44)

I found it interesting that 'vitiense' is missing (which, I understand, means "from Fiji").


Hi Bo,

Here is what I found on vitiense, I will try and add it to the list in FAQ, but I think I remember you can only edit your posts for a short period.

Meaning: Of or from Viti Levu, the largest and most populated of the Fiji Islands

Pronunciation: vee-tee-EN-see

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fiji jim

Here in Fiji---Viti means fiji.

If we talk about Fijian people it is kaiviti (all people are kai).

Viti does not mean the island of Viti Levu (our mainland).

It means anything Fijian.

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(m_crowther @ Mar. 04 2007,05:35)


(bgl @ Mar. 03 2007,10:44)

I found it interesting that 'vitiense' is missing (which, I understand, means "from Fiji").


Hi Bo,

Here is what I found on vitiense, I will try and add it to the list in FAQ, but I think I remember you can only edit your posts for a short period.

Meaning: Of or from Viti Levu, the largest and most populated of the Fiji Islands

Pronunciation: vee-tee-EN-see

Thanks again Matt,

It's been added to the list in the PALM FAQs.

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liukiuensis (from the Ryuku Islands).

Kind of interesting that the L vs. R  thing got into botanical Latin.

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Thanks, I added that to the FAQ list as well.

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Riffle will be sadly missed...

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