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Red Palm weevils found in Laguna Beach, CA

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Ron Vanderhoff

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This is an adult recovered from the original infestation in late September.

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This adult was recovered on Tuesday, Oct. 26 at the second tree, a few blocks away.

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This is the Phoenix canariensis from Oct. 26. The crown is completely disintegrated and gone. All that remains is a single row of old leaves.

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This is an empty pupal casing of Red Palm Weevil from the same tree. RPW's roll a casing of palm fibers like this to pupate within.

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This is looking down at where the crown of the palm used to be. All that remains is a cavity of moist, mushy eaten pulp. There is also a noticeably disagreeable odor.

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At the base of the cavity moisture is accumulating from the recent rains - probably contributing to the odor.

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This is an example of the moist mush left from the weevils feeding activity.

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About 250 of these bucket traps have been placed in a grid pattern by CDFA through a 9 square mile region surrounding these two palms. The traps contain a pheromone, fruit and a liquid to drown and retain the adult weevils.

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Two bucket traps (one can be seen in the distance). No adults have been captured in the traps thus far.

Hope this helps.

Ron

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Carlo Morici

post-5063-098531000 1288457332_thumb.jpg

This is the Phoenix canariensis from Oct. 26. The crown is completely disintegrated and gone. All that remains is a single row of old leaves.

... Although essentially dead, this tree is still standing and has a few remnant leaves still ringing the crown. I visited the tree yesterday and it is a very sad sight indeed...

A specimen like that should be removed as soon as possible. The Canarian experience showed that control and erradication depend much on how fast affected palms are detected and removed. Action is needed in days, not weeks.

Also, all sensitive palms in the possibly affected area are regularly screened for about two years. Any palms with possible signs of infestation is then examined for early detection.

Early detection and early removal. In my opinion, these are the keys.

Carlo

Carlo

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Dypsisdean

post-5063-098531000 1288457332_thumb.jpg

This is the Phoenix canariensis from Oct. 26. The crown is completely disintegrated and gone. All that remains is a single row of old leaves.

... Although essentially dead, this tree is still standing and has a few remnant leaves still ringing the crown. I visited the tree yesterday and it is a very sad sight indeed...

A specimen like that should be removed as soon as possible. The Canarian experience showed that control and erradication depend much on how fast affected palms are detected and removed. Action is needed in days, not weeks.

Also, all sensitive palms in the possibly affected area are regularly screened for about two years. Any palms with possible signs of infestation is then examined for early detection.

Early detection and early removal. In my opinion, these are the keys.

Carlo

Carlo

Carlo knows, he has lived through it.

A fund should be set up for immediate tree removal, contributed to by everyone who stands to loose. This includes municipalities and many large corporations (hotels, country clubs/golf courses, private estates, etc.) with deep pockets. Believe me, there is enough money in SoCal. Besides, money not spent now on immediate tree removal will be spent many times over if allowed to spread.

It is absurd that any tree discovered to be infested should be left standing for more than 24 hours. Establish a fund, find a reputable tree service or two willing to act quickly, set up a hot line, and prepare for a war. Any money left over or not needed could be used for a beneficial tree planting crusade at a later date, if the war is won.

This is a chance for the IPS and the PSSC to step up. It would not only help to fight the war, but also increase awareness of palms in general and attract more members.

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Mats

It is absurd that any tree discovered to be infested should be left standing for more than 24 hours. Establish a fund, find a reputable tree service or two willing to act quickly, set up a hot line, and prepare for a war. Any money left over or not needed could be used for a beneficial tree planting crusade at a later date, if the war is won.

It's beyond absurd, but I'm not sure it's simply a matter of money Dean.

It sounds crazy, but Ron indicates that the State doesn't have the authority to force the removal of an infected tree that's on private property.

Ron wrote:

"The discovery of another tree yesterday has not been removed yet. It also is infested with RPB. The tree is on private property and although it is essentially dead, the homeowner has not removed it yet. State officials cannot force the tree to be removed currently, but are suggesting it to the homeowner and they indicate that it might be removed by next week."

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Dypsisdean

It's beyond absurd, but I'm not sure it's simply a matter of money Dean.

It sounds crazy, but Ron indicates that the State doesn't have the authority to force the removal of an infected tree that's on private property.

Mats,

I can't imagine if the state or a "task force" from the PSSC approached a property owner telling them that they would remove their dead, dying, and smelly tree for free that they would say anything but yes - especially after telling them it would infect all of Los Angeles and San Diego if they didn't allow it.

And if they still declined, I know a few guys from the PSSC that could extend "an offer they couldn't refuse." :)

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Ferry

There is an alternative to the removal of the palms that answers to the same basic objective and presents a lot of important additional advantages.

The objective of infested palm removal is to eliminate the weevils. The same objective can be obtained by removing only the infested part of the palms. We have called this technique mechanical sanitation (various papers published in Spanish, French and Italian. One in English is in press). We have indeed discovered three years ago that, contrary to all that has been said and published before, the damages on Phoenix canariensis (adult ones) was generally only located at the leaves bases during 8 months or more. So eradication of the focus could be obtained very easily by mechanical removal only of the infested tissue.

This operation is much cheaper, easier and safer to operate than palm removal. So it is much more manageable to implement it immediately after the discovery of the infested palm. In Europe, the cost of a palm removal is about 800 euros and can reach more than 2000 for high palms. Mechanical sanitation costs between 100 and 200 euros and can be done by only one trimmer without any crane. In addition to the practice of palms removal, it was obligatory in most of the European countries to grind and even burn the trunks. This measure was very costly and totally useless as the weevil is, in the majority of the cases, located only at the bases of the leaves and in a small portion of the upper part of the trunk.

Compared with palm removal, mechanical sanitation presents another benefit of fundamental interest in the strategy to eradicate the weevil. If the infested palms are detected as soon as the first symptoms are visible, larvae have not yet reached the terminal bud that is very well protected in Phoenix canarienis and in a much lower position that is usually thought. So a well done mechanical sanitation does not affect the terminal bud and after the operation the palm recovers very quickly without any consequences on its architecture and development. Thousands of palms have already benefited of this technique in Europe and have been saved. Two fundamental advantages:

- palms that are of a high landscape and patrimony value are saved

- palms owners are much more motivated to control their palms and to advise of any abnormal symptom if they know that it will allow to save their palm instead of meaning their death.

One of the main reasons of the failure of red palm weevil eradication programs in Europe has been that the plant protection services did not offer to the palms owner other solution than the destruction of the infested palms. Consequently, the palms owners have immediately stop to advise. What for? So the essential point to obtain the eradication of the pest, the early detection and immediate treatment of infested palms, has totally missed. Consequence, the present disaster in Europe where weevil erradication had became palms eradication, except in Canary islands and in some continental cities. Some palminators became famous in Europe.

After years of intense fight, municipalities, palm owners, professionals and ourselves (the Phoenix research station) have finally succeeded to obtain a radical change of the phytosanitary regulation in Europe. Mechanical sanitation has been authorized and is becoming a usual technique in case of detection. Intensive training of public and private professionals has been organized on this technique and more generally on integrated eradication strategy.

I join here some photos to show palms recovering.

Best

Michel

PD Please someone can explain me how to join image

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PALM MOD

PD Please someone can explain me how to join image

When posting, look for the button that says "Click to Attach Files." The rest should be obvious. Note: total post size (with photos) can not exceed 2 MB.

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Carlo Morici

There is an alternative to the removal of the palms ... We have called this technique mechanical sanitation.

...

Two fundamental advantages:

- palms that are of a high landscape and patrimony value are saved

- palms owners are much more motivated to control their palms...

Yes, I agree with Ferry, sanitation is an option. Nevertheless, in this case, at the very start of the problem, I would rather go ahead with removal.

If they really do it well, they can get rid of the bug in a few months. If it gets out of control, it is a question of years and many thousands of palms. I am not really an expert on RPW. I just tell you my opinion based on what I have learned from experts.

In any case, the agonizing stumps cannot be left in place with the insects breeding inside! I hope somebody out there is listening to our recommendations.

Carlo

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mlovecan

There is an alternative to the removal of the palms that answers to the same basic objective and presents a lot of important additional advantages.

The objective of infested palm removal is to eliminate the weevils. The same objective can be obtained by removing only the infested part of the palms. We have called this technique mechanical sanitation (various papers published in Spanish, French and Italian. One in English is in press). We have indeed discovered three years ago that, contrary to all that has been said and published before, the damages on Phoenix canariensis (adult ones) was generally only located at the leaves bases during 8 months or more. So eradication of the focus could be obtained very easily by mechanical removal only of the infested tissue.

I lost one palm this year - a Ravenea rivularis.

I had read that even the roots contain RPW larvae and hacked away at the root system with a pick as fae as I could.

I went about a foot into the ground and found larvae at 6-8 inches below soil level. I "cooked" the remaining root system with bbq charcoal just to be sure.

We tried to save a CIDP at my friends pool bar that looked much the same as the second CA discovery. Our hotel gardener friend had saved 2 of 4 he attempted previously by digging out the mushy part around the bud and generously applying a pesticide. After 4 hours digging into the crown with a pick and hand gardening shovel, we never reached the end of the larvae and just cut the thing down.

Regards

Mauruce

Regards

Maurice.

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Ferry

Take care that mechanical sanitation concerns only adult (tall) palms and especially the Phoenix canariensis (but don’t forget that it is the main target of this pest) that the weevils infest starting at the basis of the central leaves. For young palms (including Phoenix canariensis) and palms with offshoots (Phoenix dactylifera, Chamaerops, etc.) weevils will usually attack starting by the base of the palms. In these cases, the trunk could be damaged before detection and it is difficult to save the palm (except if the larvae are still close to the trunk surface). Deep wounds in any palms and in any part of the trunk constitute also entrance doors for the weevils.

It has been a very difficult fight to convince the plant protection authorities (PPOs) of the enormous benefits of mechanical sanitation compared with palm removal. I think that great part of PPOs opposition was based on their authority position: they represent the authority and it was very difficult for them to admit their mistake. Consequence, four years lost and tens thousands of palms eliminated when 90% (it is the average % of recovering when implemented by trained professionals) of them could have recovered. And worse, many owners and municipalities totally discouraged.

I think that there are other aspects that explain the reticence towards mechanical sanitation. Complete ignorance of palm anatomy is one of them. Many people, even arborists or scientists, ignore that palms are not trees but giant herbs.

The reticence towards sanitation is also due that, although its principle is in fact evident, this technique is revolutionary because it is at the opposite of the usual conceptions and practices. Removal seems more evident than sanitation. Our friend Carlo Morici who, however, is a true palm lover and expert, says that at this start of the problem it is preferable to remove the infested palms? Why this surprising opinion when sanitation presents much more benefits that removal ?

Quite the contrary, sanitation instead of removal must be implemented at the first start to convince the palms owners and professionals to control frequently the palms. The initial message must be positive and clear: control your palms, you will save them and contribute to the rapid eradication of the pest.

There is one evident aspect of the palms control that, curiously, has not always been understood clearly. Very often, PPOs or other institutions propose to control all the palms in the region where the RPW has been detected. Nevertheless, they forget to take into consideration that this control will not have to be one only once but repeatedly and frequently during months. This effort is most of the time totally out of the capacity of the administration, especially when the palms are scattered and old. To mobilize to get the maximum collaboration of the municipality, the arborists, the nursery sector, the palms owners is indispensable to eradicate quickly and at a lower cost this pest.

Nevertheless, even with this collaboration, eradication will have a certain cost and someone, or better says, all the involved actors will have to cover this cost. At that stage of the problem in California, initial budget and means have to be assigned very quickly to the eradication strategy, taking into consideration that more time is lost for this assignment, more means ad more money will be necessary. The needs will follow an exponential growth similar to the exponential growth of the population weevils.

Best

Michel

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Alberto

Ron,this traps you shew doesn´t look like they have a rough surface outside (like recomended) were the weewils can sit on before entering the trap,or maybe I cannot see the details of the trap. it looks like a plastic surface.....................:blink:

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M@ximus

Ron,this traps you shew doesn´t look like they have a rough surface outside (like recomended) were the weewils can sit on before entering the trap,or maybe I cannot see the details of the trap. it looks like a plastic surface.....................:blink:

Alberto, in this address you will find all "biological" products actually available in Italy

http://www.biofarm.it/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=36&sort=20a&page=1&zenid=558f740b12b7104dabf742cb55398f28

Some are very good, (NEMASYS C) but really expansive

Traps working very well! I located 3 of them in my garden

This year , I captured about 200 red weevils with them!! Last palm attached was a washingtonia, but nearly 2 years ago!

I'm using Neem oil, with a particular preparation, that is "very biological", but the RED WEEVILS are too much, so for

the moment , I'm still treating every 3 months my biggest palms , also with an insecticide (PIRINET) with a base of

CLORPIRIFOS.

CLORPIRIFOS and Traps, were used also with success in Israel

For close, in my small experience, using traps seems to be the most important thing in the battle with red Weevil, used

for capture insect,but also for monitoring them in your area!!

I agree with others : Palms seriously infected have to be cutted and destroied ( at least the infected part)IMMEDIATELY!!!!!

CLORPIRIFOS insecticide work very well as PREVENTION, ( I found some red weevils died after tried to attach some treated

CIDP)and also in palms recently attached! I treat palms with a 5 lt watering cane. I don't use pumps or similar!!

Hope this could help

Best M@x

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Mats

Ron,this traps you show doesn´t look like they have a rough surface outside (like recommended) were the weevils can sit on before entering the trap,or maybe I cannot see the details of the trap. it looks like a plastic surface.

Alberto, the 2 gal. buckets have a mesh bag wrapped around them.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

And the trap attached to the infected palm has a burlap bag wrapped around it.

. . . .

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Ron Vanderhoff

Ron,this traps you shew doesn´t look like they have a rough surface outside (like recomended) were the weewils can sit on before entering the trap,or maybe I cannot see the details of the trap. it looks like a plastic surface.....................:blink:

Actually Alberto I think they all have a rough surface, per the USDA protocal. See Mats response below. It just doesn't show in my photograph.

Ron

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Ron Vanderhoff

Michel,

Thank you very much for your thorough and detailed comments on Phoenix sanitation and the strong arguement to educate both palm owners, professionals and plant protection authorities (PPO's).

For others reading these posts, I encourage you to give special consideration to Michel's comments. We are honored to have someone of Michel's experience contributing to this discussion. For those of you who do not know Michel, he is one of Europe's leading Phoenix researchers and has been working on the PRW issue for the past five years. He has several published papers and a wealth of first-hand experience.

Thank you Michel for your contributions to this discussion.

Ron

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Toby

After years of intense fight, municipalities, palm owners, professionals and ourselves (the Phoenix research station) have finally succeeded to obtain a radical change of the phytosanitary regulation in Europe.

Michel,

It seems to me that the phytosanitary regulations passed by the European Commission were not drawn up with much palm expert advice or advice from palm nurseries. The section ‘susceptible plants’ for instance lists

Areca catechu, Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifer, Brahea armata, Butia

capitata, Calamus merillii, Caryota maxima, Caryota cumingii,

Chamaerops humilis, Cocos nucifera, Corypha gebanga, Corypha

elata, Elaeis guineensis, Livistona australis, Livistona decipiens,

Metroxylon sagu, Oreodoxa regia, Phoenix canariensis, Phoenix

dactylifera, Phoenix theophrasti, Phoenix sylvestris, Sabal umbra-

culifera, Trachycarpus fortunei and Washingtonia spp.

Many of these palms do not and will not grow anywhere in Europe and should not be on this list. Nomenclature is a bit outdated as well.

Rather than banning the import of large palms (a practice that has been demonstrated to be responsible for the introduction of several serious palm pests, including RPW, into the EU) and rather than introducing regular phytosanitary inspections for nurseries that grow and trade large palms, the commission burdens the nursery industry with its bureaucratic system of plant passports. These may make sense when large palms are moved around in the south (though in the end you will never know for sure if RPW were spread around by infested plants or by other means), but are particularly absurd for smaller plants and for northern Europe where it is too cold for the RPW to survive.

Best, TOBY

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Ron Vanderhoff

To answer a few questions and address some issues in the past few posts. . .

Only two trees (Phoenix canariensis) have been confirmed to-date to have been infested with Red Palm Weevil so far. They are about three blocks from each other in northern Laguna Beach, CA. The first palm was removed in late September and it was during this removal that the discovery was made. There are no photos of this palm, but there are photos of the weevils found at the site, both adults and larvae. In fact, the image of an adult a few posts earlier was taken by Mr. Don Hodel and is from the site of this first discovery about six weeks ago.

On Tuesday of this week (Oct 26, 2010), a team of UC, County and State entomologists and experts determined another tree to be infested with Red Palm Weevils (the second tree). Although essentially dead, this tree is still standing and has a few remnant leaves still ringing the crown. I visited the tree yesterday and it is a very sad sight indeed. (I would post a picture or two of it if I could figure out how to add an image to this post or site).

I know IPS members are worried about this pest in North America. But to stand next to this dying palm, with its internal tissue completely eaten to a mushy pulp and see the devastation myself - it is quite humbling. While examining the collapsing palm, I could not avoid thinking that I am looking at one of the very first palms in North America to house this aggressive pest. I was thinking, I hope that ten years from today Phoenix canariensis and P. dactylifera are not absent from our California gardens and skylines, and I would look back on this iconic moment and think 'what if' we had ___________. Of course, I don't think we all know what the right thing to do is right now.

Continuing, this second tree has been infested for quite some time. I looked at aerial images from mid November 2009 and they indicate the tree was already quite distressed at that time. But, images from Feb 2008 show what appears to be a much healthier, greener tree. Of course, this is all circumstantial and not definitive information. Nonetheless, there is a very good possibility that this second tree was infested at some point from 2008 to mid 2009. Again, this is not certain, but in my opinion - probable.

Another question asked on this board is what was the source of the RPW's in this infestation? Nobody knows or likely ever will - the answer to this question would be trivia at this point anyway. This is an older, mature neighborhood and there are very few landscape palms being planted in the area. Secondly, mature imported palms reaching Laguna Beach from a region of the world with RPW is especially unlikely.

Next, CDFA has installed and is monitoring about 250 pheromone traps in a nine square mile area surrounding these two RPW discoveries. To date, no additional weevils have been captured in these traps.

So the issue is a bit confusing at the moment. Here's the quandary: It appears that at least one palm has been infested with RPW for possibly over a year and maybe as long as two years. Assuming RPW's can produce three generations per year (unconfirmed in CA, but reasonable) then the adults from this infested palm would have travelled to additional palms in the area by now, infested those tree and moved on to even more palms. The RPW population would expand exponentially. However, no adults RPW's have been trapped in any of the 250 bucket traps.

On another note, CDFA, USDA and UC groups have called an informational meeting for next Friday at 10:00 AM at the Laguna Beach City Hall. The meeting is directed to arborists, municipal staff and plant protection personnel. Future meetings will be directed to citizens and other interested groups.

Finally, a suggestion . . .

I would hope that IPS and its members offer their complete assistance to UC, CDFA and USDA in their efforts toward RPW in Laguna Beach. IPS should be a strategic ally in this campaign. Education, detection, public workshops, media communications and more should be offered to these agencies. Panic and misinformation won't be helpful and may exacerbate the problem. The IPS/Palm Society of Southern California should step up quickly, perhaps an ad hoc committee be formed, volunteers and commitments secured and their services offered. This is the real deal.

Ron

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BS Man about Palms

Without having to go over all the pages on this, are there a few pictures handy of maybe "recently infected" CIDP's so one might know what to look for while driving around? (I cover a lot of territory thru my job, and while not too the infected area, less than 35 miles from it.)

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DoomsDave

Yes, BS has a great idea.

I also travel a lot more than a healthy person should . . . .

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John in Andalucia

Dave and Bill, if you're focusing on CIDP's then look out for a crown that appears to be opening up at the centre. If strong winds leave a CIDP with a "centre-parting" then that is potentially a sign of infection. That would be my layman's description, in terms of a drive-by observation.

Some photos of RPW damage to emerging fronds here (see fig.7): http://www.aambiental.org/PalmWeevil/

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mlovecan

The first sign is yellowing fronds at a higher angle than one might normally expect.

Then, as John mentions, you will see the crown lean over ever-so-slightly - later the crown just topples over.

CIDP's are always attacked at the crown - other Phoenix ( from my experience ) are attacked somewhere on the trunk and can be spotted quite early on with close visual inspection.

Regards

Maurice

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Ron Vanderhoff

Ron,this traps you shew doesn´t look like they have a rough surface outside (like recomended) were the weewils can sit on before entering the trap,or maybe I cannot see the details of the trap. it looks like a plastic surface.....................:blink:

Actually Alberto I think they all have a rough surface, per the USDA protocol. See Mats response below. It just doesn't show in my photograph.

Ron

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MattyB

I too often travel between San Diego and Los Angeles regularly so I'll keep my eye out for infected palms because I'm already looking at them anyways. The problem is that we have many Phoenix that look like that already due to rot, unsuccessful transplants, and Fusarium. The problem I'm worried about is all of the naturalized palms that are in our canyons and gullies that no one ever gets close to.

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Ron Vanderhoff

Here are some images of Phoenix canariensis at various stages of RPW infestation.

post-5063-008825500 1288800069_thumb.jpg

A young palm.

post-5063-054875900 1288800070_thumb.jpg

The crown is beginning to drop on this Phoenix.

post-5063-023226300 1288800066_thumb.jpg

The palm on the right is rather advanced. In So. California I suspect we will not see a mature palm like this very often, since the palm would have already been assumed dead and removed by most individuals.

post-5063-063456500 1288800067_thumb.jpg

Let's hope we never see this sight.

post-5063-040350200 1288800072_thumb.jpg

post-5063-072327600 1288800064_thumb.jpg

Apparently wounds at the base and along the trunk can be another point of RPW infestation.

Ron

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Ron Vanderhoff

Here are some images of Phoenix canariensis at various stages of RPW infestation.

post-5063-008825500 1288800069_thumb.jpg

A young palm.

post-5063-054875900 1288800070_thumb.jpg

The crown is beginning to drop on this Phoenix.

post-5063-023226300 1288800066_thumb.jpg

The palm on the right is rather advanced. In So. California I suspect we will not see a mature palm like this very often, since the palm would have already been assumed dead and removed by most individuals.

post-5063-063456500 1288800067_thumb.jpg

Let's hope we never see this sight.

post-5063-072327600 1288800064_thumb.jpg

Apparently wounds at the base and along the trunk can be another point of RPW infestation.

Ron

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Alberto

Ron,this traps you shew doesn´t look like they have a rough surface outside (like recomended) were the weewils can sit on before entering the trap,or maybe I cannot see the details of the trap. it looks like a plastic surface.....................:blink:

Actually Alberto I think they all have a rough surface, per the USDA protocal. See Mats response below. It just doesn't show in my photograph.

Ron

Thanks for the anwer!.

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MattyB

I just spoke to Tony at The California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) pest hotline (800) 491-1899. I asked him what we, as palm people driving around looking at palms all day, should do if we see a damaged palm. He said, obviously, we should call the hotline and report any visually confirmed RPW infestation that we see. But also, if we observe any damaged palm that exhibits some suspicious charactaristics we can email pics and the address of the palm to:

pesthotline@cdfa.ca.gov

and they'll take those reports from that central location, where they can log all calls and emails, and then get them out to the local guys to go out and check the palms reported.

I know of several dead or dying Phoenix canariensis around that I'm going to go ahead and forward the locations of to these guys. They really appreciate the help and value the experienced and vigilant eyes of us in the palm society, and they recognize that it's going to be guys and gals like us who are probably going to be spotting any problems in the early stages.

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mlovecan

Here are some images of Phoenix canariensis at various stages of RPW infestation.

post-5063-008825500 1288800069_thumb.jpg

A young palm.

Ron

Hi Ron,

That's an extremely good example. The initial visual sign is a suttle lean of about 5 degrees or so - about a month or later the lean hits 10 - 15 degrees and a few of the side fronds start falling down.

The one in the photo is leaning about 20-30 degrees ( about two months in ) and probably would have a toppled-over crown in about 4 or 5 weeks - the ones they save here are usually no more than that advanced.

From first visual sign to toppled crown is about 3 months - 2 months during our summer heat which is fairly comparable to central valley CA.

Regards

Maurice

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Ron Vanderhoff

Here are some images of Phoenix canariensis at various stages of RPW infestation.

post-5063-008825500 1288800069_thumb.jpg

A young palm.

post-5063-054875900 1288800070_thumb.jpg

The crown is beginning to drop on this Phoenix. (If it appears that ar Araucaria is growing out of the tops of this palm, it is not. Although that would be an interesting occurance I wouldn't anticipate that happennning.)

post-5063-023226300 1288800066_thumb.jpg

The palm on the right is rather advanced. In So. California I suspect we will not see a mature palm like this very often, since the palm would have already been assumed dead and removed by most individuals.

post-5063-063456500 1288800067_thumb.jpg

Let's hope we never see this sight.

post-5063-040350200 1288800072_thumb.jpg

post-5063-072327600 1288800064_thumb.jpg

Apparently wounds at the base and along the trunk can be another point of RPW infestation.

Ron

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Ferry

Good morning

A lot of interesting messages regarding symptoms.

Of course, as soon as symptoms are detected better it is. Palms with many leaves drooped down are no more a symptom, they are an evidence.

We have to look for early symptoms. If they are detected in time, palm can immediately be sanitized and weevil dispersion will not occur or can will stop.

The palm of the following slide (symptom 1)is infested and, from ground, we have been able to detect a symptom of its infestation.

Can you find it? With a photo, it is not easy to find this symptom but all the persons who were with us (professionals but also simple palms owners) were capable after few minutes to find it.

On the next slides, it is a bit easier.

Field training of plant protection personal, professionals, public gardens personal but also palms owners or volunteers is indispensable. Everybody after a short field training is capable to detect from ground early symptoms. We have organized many field training in different European countries and people were enthusiast and rapidly very efficient. The training of trainers is urgent. Regarding early detection, the worse behavior has been the one adopted by several plant protection services in Europe who instead of teaching people how to detect symptoms have monopolized this task. A stupid attitude considering the important number of palms to control, their scattered location and the need to repeat these controls frequently during months. A lot of money has been wasted uselessly for this task.

In addition to detection from ground, deeper inspection must be realized in the infested area. We have to consider that all the palms around a detected infested one or around a trap that has captured a weevil are potentially infested on a radio of at least 200 meters. To prevent any weevil dispersal from these palms and also to save them, inspection windows must be realized (photo attached).

They allow to detect early symptoms as demonstrated in the attached slide (hidden symtoms) that show symptoms undetectable without acceding to the central leaves thanks to the inspection window. .

Be careful not to confound the detection of few early symptoms with the state of infestation of a palm. You will be often surprised by the number of larvae and even cocoons and adults that you will find in a palm that presents just a very small and initial symptom of attack.

Best regards.

Michel

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samirbouag

geeze!we've got the same probleme on the french riviera, a lot of trachycarpus,phoenix,chamaerops die!you've got the RTW but also a butterfly who caled Paysandisia archon!

a solution, was found to eradicate this problem!

it's a solution based microscopic worms, which dig into the trunk of the palm and kills the Paysandisia archon or RTW!

many cities in France have been alerted to the problem and some cities like hyeres, begin to Treaty (prevention) palms, which furnishes the city!

here a french link where we can see pics who show the Paysandisia archon on palms!

http://palmae.free.fr/paysandisia_archon.htm

good luck!

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MattyB

Ferry,

What is the early symptom in your photos? Is it the lack of a new push of leaves from the center of the crown?

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Ron Vanderhoff

There is an alternative to the removal of the palms that answers to the same basic objective and presents a lot of important additional advantages.

The objective of infested palm removal is to eliminate the weevils. The same objective can be obtained by removing only the infested part of the palms. We have called this technique mechanical sanitation (various papers published in Spanish, French and Italian. One in English is in press). We have indeed discovered three years ago that, contrary to all that has been said and published before, the damages on Phoenix canariensis (adult ones) was generally only located at the leaves bases during 8 months or more. So eradication of the focus could be obtained very easily by mechanical removal only of the infested tissue.

This operation is much cheaper, easier and safer to operate than palm removal. So it is much more manageable to implement it immediately after the discovery of the infested palm. In Europe, the cost of a palm removal is about 800 euros and can reach more than 2000 for high palms. Mechanical sanitation costs between 100 and 200 euros and can be done by only one trimmer without any crane. In addition to the practice of palms removal, it was obligatory in most of the European countries to grind and even burn the trunks. This measure was very costly and totally useless as the weevil is, in the majority of the cases, located only at the bases of the leaves and in a small portion of the upper part of the trunk.

Compared with palm removal, mechanical sanitation presents another benefit of fundamental interest in the strategy to eradicate the weevil. If the infested palms are detected as soon as the first symptoms are visible, larvae have not yet reached the terminal bud that is very well protected in Phoenix canarienis and in a much lower position that is usually thought. So a well done mechanical sanitation does not affect the terminal bud and after the operation the palm recovers very quickly without any consequences on its architecture and development. Thousands of palms have already benefited of this technique in Europe and have been saved. Two fundamental advantages:

- palms that are of a high landscape and patrimony value are saved

- palms owners are much more motivated to control their palms and to advise of any abnormal symptom if they know that it will allow to save their palm instead of meaning their death.

One of the main reasons of the failure of red palm weevil eradication programs in Europe has been that the plant protection services did not offer to the palms owner other solution than the destruction of the infested palms. Consequently, the palms owners have immediately stop to advise. What for? So the essential point to obtain the eradication of the pest, the early detection and immediate treatment of infested palms, has totally missed. Consequence, the present disaster in Europe where weevil erradication had became palms eradication, except in Canary islands and in some continental cities. Some palminators became famous in Europe.

After years of intense fight, municipalities, palm owners, professionals and ourselves (the Phoenix research station) have finally succeeded to obtain a radical change of the phytosanitary regulation in Europe. Mechanical sanitation has been authorized and is becoming a usual technique in case of detection. Intensive training of public and private professionals has been organized on this technique and more generally on integrated eradication strategy.

I join here some photos to show palms recovering.

Best

Michel

PD Please someone can explain me how to join image

Michel,

Would you be able to post some pictures on this board of a Phoenix that has undergone mechanical sanitation. Perhaps a before and after picture, if possible. I think USDA and CDFA should strongly consider this approach.

If the only option seen by palm owners (residential, commercial and even municipal) is palm removal, many, many infested palms will never be reported. Right or wrong, a property owner with a large Phoenix valued at several thousand dollars) is not likely to call CDFA if the response is going to be "palm removal".

Ron

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BS Man about Palms

Ferry,

What is the early symptom in your photos? Is it the lack of a new push of leaves from the center of the crown?

Matt- I have to agree, the only thing I can spot easy in those photos is the lack of a plethora of new emerging spears....:blink:

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Ferry

I recognize that it is not easy to find these symptoms on these photos. They are of two type: one leaf of the inner crown still totally green but leant on a lower one (mechanical consequence of the galeries created months ago at the base of the leaf) - leaflets of one or various leaves cut like with scissors (these leaflets were cut weekss or months - it is possible to determine it according to the period of the year when this symptom appears - by a larvae galering these leaves when they were very small and hidden in the shoot apex of the palm). These symptoms are very interesting beccause they correspond to the first and inevitable signs of the presence of the RPW.

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Charles Wychgel

Ferry,

What is the early symptom in your photos? Is it the lack of a new push of leaves from the center of the crown?

Photo 7 in the link John provided shows early damage clearly

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Ferry

What Ron has said in a previous message regarding the reaction of the owners if no other perspective than palm removal is offered constitutes the most important point to consider to establish a sound strategy for eradication. Unfortunately, this point that seems obvious has been totally ignored or rejected by plant protection administrations in Europe. When, 4 years ago, we proposed an alternative to removal, they did not consider it for various reasons:

- they represent the authority, they know what to do and can’t equivocate. Unfortunately, this reaction is very frequent inside these administrations that have a lot of power as for example the right to enter in your garden or to control your nursery or goods and to decide their destruction.

- they are not at all accustomed to work with individuals. The lack of experience on that issue has rapidly lead us to propose that the municipalities, that are themselves also very often owner of palms, to be the main institution in charge of the implementation of the strategy. This proposal was considered unacceptable by the plant protection administrations. They did not want to share their power. In Valencia region, they refused categorically to give any information to the municipalities. What is fantastic is that now that the pest has been dispersed in the whole region they have officially informed that they stop all their previous activities and that the control of the pest was now totally under the responsibility of the municipalities, palms owners and nurseries.

- they ignore completely what is a palm (a palm is not a tree). Unfortunately, this ignorance is shared by the majority of the scientists that have published or are doing research on the red palm weevil.

I will try to send rapidly some photos on palms recovering after sanitation.

CFDA has contacted me when the first infested palm was discovered. At their demand, I have already reviewed totally the USDA guidelines on RPW. This administration knows that I am ready to fully collaborate on any issue and especially on training regarding mechanical sanitation and early symptoms detection. We have given traing on the integrated eradication strategy in many places and various countries of the mediterranean area.

Regards.

Michel

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Tom S

I just left the meeting in Laguna Beach. A few notes:

There were well over 100 people in attendance. Dozens of state and local officials, the rest were tree trimming/landscape companies from all over Orange County.

Both infected trees in Laguna Beach had there crowns completely fall off. Modern Tree Service who removed the first stated they had removed several other trees in the same area over the past two years with Red Palm Weevils in them.

So far none of the traps have netted any Weevils, or have any other infested trees been found.

The state has an international technical committee which will come out with a comprehensive plan of attack around November 11th.

They are currently setting up a quarantine area, which will be implemented soon.

Right now they are trying to determine if Laguna Beach is the only infestation or the tip of the iceberg.

Tom

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MattyB

Modern Tree Service who removed the first stated they had removed several other trees in the same area over the past two years with Red Palm Weevils in them.

WTF! A tree service sees repeated instances of pests and doesn't think to possibly report it for 2 years? :angry:

I wonder if a lot of the Phoenix dying in LA from the reported Fusiarium is actually RPW?

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