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cold damage report for tropical and subtropical trees at Leu Gardens

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I have compiled a report on the cold damage to the tropical and subtropical trees in the collection here at Leu Gardens. Some trees are listed twice as one specimen may have been injured and another of the same species growing elsewhere in the Garden was uninjured.

NO DAMAGE

Acacia confusa

Acacia farnesiana

Acacia maidenii

Acacia nilotica ssp. tomentosa

Acacia sieberiana- PAPERBARK ACACIA

Acacia sphaerocephala- BULLHORN ACACIA

Acacia xanthophloea- FEVER TREE

Acrocarpus fraxinifolius- SHINGLE TREE

Adansonia digitata- BAOBAB TREE

Albizia procera

Albizia sinaloensis

Aleurites moluccanus-CANDLENUT TREE

Aloysia virgata-SWEET ALMOND BUSH

Aristolochia arborea

Azadirachta indica-NEEM TREE

Bauhinia x blakeana- HONG KONG ORCHID TREE

Bauhinia bartlettii

Bauhinia bowkeri

Bauhinia divaricata

Bauhinia forficata- THORNY ORCHID TREE

Bauhinia grandidieri

Bauhinia hookeri

Bauhinia macranthera

Bauhinia mexicana

Bauhinia petersiana

Bauhinia purpurea

Bauhinia roxburghiana

Bauhinia rufescens

Bauhinia tarapotensis

Bauhinia variegata ‘Candida’- WHITE ORCHID TREE

Bolusanthus speciosus

Bombax ceiba- RED SILK COTTON TREE

Bougainvillea arborea

Brachychiton acerifolius- FLAME TREE

Brachychiton australis

Brachychiton bidwillii

Brachychiton rupestris- BOTTLE TREE

Brossimum alicastrum- BREADNUT TREE

Buckinghamia celsissima- IVORY CURL TREE

Buddleja madagascariensis

Bursera fagaroides

Bursera filicifolia

Bursera grandifolia

Bursera microphylla

Bursera simaruba- GUMBO LIMBO

Bursera xochiplaensis

Caesalpinia ferrea- LEOPARD TREE

Caesalpinia mexicana- MEXICAN POINCIANA

Caesalpinia platyloba

Calliandra haematocephala- POWDERPUFF

Calliandra houstoniana

Calliandra parvifolia

Calliandra riparia

Calliandra surinamensis- PINK POWDERPUFF

Calliandra tweediei

Callistemon brachyandrus

Callistemon citrinus- LEMON BOTTLEBRUSH

Callistemon citrinus ‘Jeffersi’- PURPLE BOTTLEBRUSH

Callistemon comboynensis- CLIFF BOTTLEBRUSH

Callistemon linearis

Callistemon pallidus ‘Eleanor’

Callstemon paludosus- PINK BOTTLEBRUSH

Callistemon phoeniceus

Callistemon pinifolius

Callistemon polandii-GOLDTIP BOTTLEBRUSH

Callistemon rigidus

Callistemon salignus- WHITE BOTTLEBRUSH

Callistemon speciosus

Callistemon subulatus

Callistemon viminalis- WEEPING BOTTLEBRUSH

Cassia excelsa

Cassia fistula- GOLD SHOWER TREE

Cassia grandis- PINK SHOWER TREE

Cassia leptophylla- GOLD MEDALLION TREE

Cassia siamensis

Castanospermum australe

Ceiba aesculifolia

Ceiba aesculifolia ssp. parvifolia

Ceiba brevifolia

Ceiba chodatii ‘Sunset’ YELLOW FLOSS SILK TREE

Ceiba crispifolia ‘Sugar Loaf’- FLOSS SILK TREE

Ceiba insignis- WHITE FLOSS SILK TREE

Ceiba speciosa- FLOSS SILK TREE

Ceiba speciosa (spineless form)

Ceiba speciosa ‘Angel’

Ceiba speciosa ‘Midwest’

Ceiba speciosa ‘Variegata’

Ceiba ‘Kampong’

Ceiba ‘McDonald’

Ceiba ‘Scott Cohen’

Ceiba ‘Tem’

Ceiba ‘Willis Jr.’

Ceiba ‘Willis Red’

Ceiba hybrid (C. insignis x C. speciosa x C. chodatii)

Chrysophyllum oliviforme- SATINLEAF

Cinnamomum aromaticum- CHINESE CINNAMON

Coccoloba diversifolia- PIGEON-PLUM

Coccoloba uvifera- SEAGRAPE

Colophospermum mopane

Cordia boissieri

Cordia superba

Corymbia citiodora (Eucalyptus)- LEMON GUM

Cybistax antisyphilitica- GREEN TRUMPET TREE

Dalbergia sisoo

Delonix pumila

Dichrostachys cinerea- SICKLEBUSH

Dimocarpus longan ‘Kohala’- LONGAN TREE

Ebenopsis ebano- TEXAS EBONY

Elaeagnus triflora ‘Silver King’ - LINGARO

Enterolobium contortisiliquum- EAR TREE

Erythrina crista-galii- CORAL TREE

Erythrina speciosa

Eucalyptus deglupta- RAINBOW EUCALYPTUS

Eucalyptus polyanthemos

Eucalyptus quadrangulata

Falcataria moluccana (Albizia falcata)

Ficus altissima- LOFTY FIG

Ficus altissima ‘Snowstorm’

Ficus altissima ‘Variegata’

Ficus aurea- STRANGLER FIG

Ficus benjamina var. nuda- WEEPING FIG

Ficus benghalensis- BANYAN TREE

Ficus destruens- DESTROYER FIG

Ficus lutea- WEST AFRICAN RUBBER TREE

Ficus macrophylla- MORETON BAY FIG

Ficus microcarpa ‘Green Gem’- LAUREL FIG

Ficus religiosa- BO FIG

Ficus rubiginosa

Ficus salicaria (nerifolia)NARROW LEAF FIG

Ficus virens

Flindersia australis

Gigasiphon macrosiphon

Grevillea banksii

Grevillea robusta- SILKY-OAK

Harpullia pendula

Havardia pallens

Jacaranda cuspidifolia

Jacaranda mimosifolia

Lagunaria patersonia- NORFOLK ISLAND HIBISCUS TREE

Lonchocarpus capassa

Lonchocarpus violaceus

Lophostemon confertus- BRUSHBOX

Lysiloma sabicu

Lysiloma watsonii

Macadamia integrifolia- MACADAMIA NUT

Macadamia ‘Beaumont’

Magnolia x alba (Michelia)- WHITE CHAMPACA

Magnolia x alba ‘Golden’ (Michelia)

Magnolia champaca (Michelia)- CHAMPACA

Magnolia coco

Magnolia lilifera (Talauma candollei)

Magnolia lilifera var. ovata (Talauma hodgsonii)

Magnolia sirindhorniae (Michelia)

Magnolia ‘Pure Joi’ (Michelia)

Manilkara zapota- SAPODILLA TREE

Markhamia lutea

Markhamia zanzibarica

Melaleuca alternifolia

Melaleuca linariifolia

Moringa oleifera- HORSERADISH TREE

Murraya koenigii- CURRYLEAF

Myrciaria cauliflora- JABOTICABA

Ochna serrulata

Operculicarya decaryi

Persea americana ‘Winter Mexican’- AVOCADO

Phyllanthus juglandifolius

Peltophorum africanum

Peltophorum dasyrhachis

Peltophorum dubium- YELLOW POINCIANA

Peltophorum pterocarpum- COPPERPOD TREE

Pittosporum resiniferum

Plumeria tuberculata

Polyalthia longifolia- ASHOKA TREE

Pseudobombax ellipticum ‘Album’- WHITE SHAVING BRUSH TREE

Pseudobombax palmeri

Psidium cattleianum- CATTLEY GUAVA

Pterogyne nitens- VIRARO TREE

Pterospermum acerifolium- BAYUR TREE

Pterospermum diversifolium

Pterygota alata (Sterculia alata)

Radermachera ignea

Radermachera sinica- CHINADOLL TREE

Rauvolfia caffra

Sapindus detergens- SOAP NUT TREE

Schefflera heptaphylla

Schizolobium parahyba- FERN TREE

Schotia brachypetala

Senna splendida

Sesamothamnus lugardii

Simarouba glauca- PARADISE TREE

Stenocarpus sinuatus- FIREWHEEL TREE

Sterculia appendiculata

Sterculia foetida

Swietenia mahagoni- WEST INDIAN MAHOGANY

Syzygium paniculatum- AUSTRALIAN BRUSHCHERRY

Tabebuia alba

Tabebuia aurea- SILVER TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia bahamensis

Tabebuia chrysotricha- GOLDEN TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia heptaphylla- PURPLE TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia impetiginosa- PINK TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia impetiginosa ‘Alba’- WHITE TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia impetiginosa ‘Lake Placid’- PURPLE TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia impetiginosa ‘Naples White’- WHITE TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia rosea- ROSY TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia roseoalba- WHITE TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia umbellate- YELLOW TRUMPET TREE

Tabebuia impetiginosa x chrysotricha

Tectona grandis- TEAK TREE

Tipuana tipu- TIPU TREE

Trevesia palmata

Trichilia emetica- AFRICAN MAHOGANY TREE

MINOR to MODERATE DAMAGE

Acacia holosericea (leaf burn)

Aglaia odorata- PERFUME BUSH

Albizia niopoides (in a protected location)

Artocarpus heterophyllus- JACKFRUIT

Artocarpus hypargyraeus

Averrhoa carambola ‘B-10’- STARFRUIT

Avicenna germinans- BLACK MANGROVE (leaf burn)

Bauhinia acuminata

Bombax ceiba – RED SILK COTTON TREE

Bulnesia arborea

Caesalpinia yucatanensis

Cassia x nealiae ‘Queen’s Hospital White’- WHITE SHOWER TREE

Ceiba chodatii- YELLOW FLOSS SILK TREE

Ceiba pentandra- KAPOK TREE

Ceiba pubiflora

Cecropia peltata- SNAKEWOOD

Clusia rosea (leaf burn)

Coccoloba uvifera- SEAGRAPE

Colvillea racemosa

Delonix elata- WHITE POINCIANA

Delonix regia- ROYAL POINCIANA

Derris ovalifolia (Millettia)

Elaeocarpus grandiflorus

Enterolobium cyclocarpum- EARPOD TREE

Ficus auriculata- ROXBURG FIG (leaf burn)

Ficus cyathistipula

Ficus hispida

Ficus lyrata- FIDDLELEAF FIG

Ficus natalensis ssp. leprieurii (triangularis)- TRIANGLE FIG

Ficus palmeri

Ficus petiolaris

Garcinia benthamii- HIMALAYAN MANGOSTEEN (leaf burn)

Gliricidia sepium- MADRE DE CACAO

Gmelina arborea- SNAPDRAGON TREE

Khaya nyasica- AFRICAN MAHOGANY

Kigelia africana- SAUSAGE TREE (leaf burn)

Lagunicularia racemosa- WHITE MANGROVE

Litchi chinensis ‘Mauritius’- LYCHEE TREE (leaf burn)

Maniltoa grandiflora

Memecylon ovatum

Metrosideros collina ‘Springfire’

Newbouldia laevis- BORDER TREE

Pachira aquatic

Persea americana (seedling)- AVOCADO (leaf burn)

Phaleria octandra

Plumeria obtusa

Plumeria rubra f. tricolor

Pseudobombax ellipticum- PINK SHAVING BRUSH TREE

Psidium guajava- GUAVA

Quararibea funebris

Rhizophora mangle- RED MANGROVE (leaf burn)

Schefflera actinophylla (leaf burn)

Schefflera actinophylla ‘Amate’ (leaf burn)

Schefflera elegantissima- FALSE ARALIA

Schefflera pueckleri (leaf burn)

Senna quinquangulata

Syzygium jambos- ROSE-APPLE

Talipariti tiliaceum (Hibiscus tiliaceus)- MAHOE

Talipariti tiliaceum ‘Tricolor’ (Hibiscus tiliaceus)

Triplaris cumingiana

SEVERE DAMAGE

Acacia collinsii- BULLHORN ACACIA

Adansonia digitata- BAOBAB TREE

Adansonia fony

Adansonia grandidieri

Adansonia greggorii – AUSTRALIAN BAOBAB TREE

Adansonia madagascariensis

Adansonia rubrostipa

Adansonia za

Albizia niopoides (in an open location)

Bixa orellana- LIPSTICK TREE

Caesalpinia pluviosa var. peltophoroides

Cananga odorata- YLANG YLANG TREE

Cassia bakeriana- PINK SHOWER TREE

Cinnamomum verum- CINNAMON TREE

Erythrina variegate- SUNSHINE TREE

Ficus aspera ‘Parcellii’- MOSAIC FIG

Hevea brasiliensis- RUBBER TREE

Jacaranda jasminoides

Lagerstroemia calyculata

Lagerstroemia loudonii

Lagerstroemia macrocarpa

Lagerstroemia speciosa- QUEEN CREPE MYRTLE

Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Alba’

Mangifera indica ‘Carrie’- MANGO

Mangifera indica ‘Keitt’- MANGO

Meliococcus bijugatus- SPANISH LIME

Moringa drouhardii

Moringa stenopetala

Oroxylum indica- MIDNIGHT HORROR TREE

Plumeria rubra f. lutea

Solanum wrightii- PURPLE POTATO TREE

Stemmadenia litoralis- MILKY WAY TREE

Tamarindus indica- TAMARIND

Uncarina grandidieri

KILLED

Albizia saman (Samanea saman)- RAIN TREE

Bauhinia pottsii var. mollissima

Bunchosa argentea- PEANUTBUTTER FRUIT

Caesalpinia granadillo- BRIDAL VEIL TREE

Cananga odorata var. fruticosa- DWARF YLANG YLANG

Cassia emarginata

Cavanillesia platanifolia- QUIPO TREE

Chloroleucon tortum (Pithecellobium)

Chrysophyllum oliviforme- SATINLEAF

Clusia guttifera

Clusia orthoneura

Coccoloba pubescens

Coccoloba rugosa

Cola nitida- KOLA NUT

Commiphora africana

Cordia lutea

Cordia sebestana- GEIGER TREE

Delonix decaryi

Delonix elata

Delonix floribunda

Elaeophorbia drupifera

Ficus dammaropsis

Ficus kingiana

Fillicium decipiens- FERN TREE

Gnetum gnemon

Couroupita guianensis- CANNONBALL TREE

Gyrocarpus americanus ssp. tomentosus

Heriteria littoralis- LOOKING GLASS TREE

Ixora longistipula

Kopsia fruticosa

Lagerstroemia floribunda

Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Nong Nooch Pink’

Lagerstroemia thorelli

Lagerstroemia tomentosa

Macaranga grandifolia- CORAL TREE

Miconia calvescens

Mutingia calabura

Pachycormus discolor

Pimenta dioica- ALLSPICE TREE

Pimenta racemosa- BAYRUM TREE

Pimenta racemosa var. citrifolia- LEMON BAYRUM TREE

Plumeria pudica

Plumeria stenophylla

Pseudosamanea cubana (Albizia)

Senna surratensis- SCRAMBLED EGG TREE

Spathodea campanulata- AFRICAN TULIP TREE

Sterculia apetala

Sterculia ceramica

Sterculia rogersii

Tabernaemontana pachysiphon

Talipariti tiliaceum ‘Tricolor’ (Hibiscus tiliaceus)- MAHOE

Terminalia catappa- TROPICAL ALMOND

Thespesia lampas

Thespesia populnea- PORTIA TREE

Xanthostemon chrysanthus- GOLDEN PEMBA TREE

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Eric--

Very interesting slice of info here, though I'm sure it was painful to compile.

One thing I think people need to be reminded of though is that Leu is a rather large place with lots of microclimates and trees/shrubs of varying ages. Just because a specimen may have been killed here (or survived unscathed) doesn't necessarily translate directly into "tender" (or "hardy", as the case may be) elsewhere under other circumstances. Still, it is very interesting nonetheless.

What sort of temp variation (minimums) did you see between various thermometers around the Garden on any individual cold night?

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First of all-what an incredible collection Eric! And thanks for all of this information-there are several surprises on that list-trees that made ti thru SoCal's big freeze of 07 fared worse for you, such as Spathodas, D. floribunda,F. dammaropsis,etc... Also surprised that your Caes. peltophoroides was damaged, but as Ken said, there must be some microclimates there.

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First of all-what an incredible collection Eric! And thanks for all of this information-there are several surprises on that list-trees that made ti thru SoCal's big freeze of 07 fared worse for you, such as Spathodas, D. floribunda,F. dammaropsis,etc... Also surprised that your Caes. peltophoroides was damaged, but as Ken said, there must be some microclimates there.

Peter--

That's another important point I failed to mention-- the damage is always greater in areas when trees haven't had a chance to harden wood (typical in SoCal, less likely in Florida). This is especially true of pulpier species like Spathodea. Indeed, some species on Eric's list-- Spathodea, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cassia fistula, Delonix regia-- survived at Fullerton Arboretum during the '07 freeze, seeing upper 20sF totally unscathed. But they had some time to harden-off first.

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Eric--

How did your Senna polyphylla do? Interesting that S. surratensis was a goner.

And I'm surprised too by no damage to Ficus benjamina. Lots of large (30'+) trees a couple of blocks from the water in Pinellas were killed to the ground.

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Eric, Incredible list and information.

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Here is info on the winter temperatures we experienced and recorded here at Leu Gardens. I cut and pasted from the report on posted on the damage to the palms a few weeks ago;

The winter of 2009-2010 was a record setting for the duration of cool and cold weather. December was very warm but it turned cold in early January. The absolute low was only 29F but the duration of cold in January set records. February and March was also much cooler than normal. Many plants did not show much injury for several weeks and slowly started to decline thereafter.

Here are the stats for the cold spell in January. On the night (Jan. 10) it dropped to 29F it was below freezing for an amazing 12 hours. Also the nights of Jan. 10 and 11 had very heavy frost in the open areas. February had no below freezing nights but there were quite a few nights in the mid 30sF to the low 40sF and highs only in the 50sF.

Jan. 1 68/47

Jan. 2 58/39

Jan. 3 47/36

Jan. 4 52/33

Jan. 5 47/35

Jan. 6 50/31

Jan. 7 61/30

Jan. 8 59/38

Jan. 9 41/31

Jan. 10 45/29

32F- 9:30pm

31F- 10:30pm

30F- 1:15am

29F- 5:45am

30F- 9:00am

31F- 9:15am

32F- 9:30am

33F- 9:45am

35F- 10:00am

Jan. 11 53/30

Jan. 12 58/32

Jan. 13 63/36

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Eric--

Very interesting slice of info here, though I'm sure it was painful to compile.

One thing I think people need to be reminded of though is that Leu is a rather large place with lots of microclimates and trees/shrubs of varying ages. Just because a specimen may have been killed here (or survived unscathed) doesn't necessarily translate directly into "tender" (or "hardy", as the case may be) elsewhere under other circumstances. Still, it is very interesting nonetheless.

What sort of temp variation (minimums) did you see between various thermometers around the Garden on any individual cold night?

No, not painful at all ! Maybe a bit discouraging but things grow back or get replaced. Unless its a catrostrophic, once-in-a-century freeze like 12/89, I don't worry or sweat it. What makes it, makes it !

Yes, LG is 50 acres. We only measured temperature from the weather station we have set up at the main building. But to show you how temperature can vary look back to winter 2002/2003. We only had one night below freezing, in Jan. 2003. The official low for Orlando was 27F and that is what we recorded also. But we placed 15 thermometers around the property in open and protected locations. The lows ran from 26-35F with a majority at 27-28F so there is a big difference.

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Eric--

How did your Senna polyphylla do? Interesting that S. surratensis was a goner.

And I'm surprised too by no damage to Ficus benjamina. Lots of large (30'+) trees a couple of blocks from the water in Pinellas were killed to the ground.

Forgot Senna polyphylla. We had 2 planted out. The one out in the open was killed, another in a more protected location suffered leaf burn.

The F. benjamina is the variety nuda, the one with the much larger leaves. Its growing along the stream in a very warm pocket. We don't have any "regular" F. benjamina planted here. The ones I see around town suffered moderate to severe killback.

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Definitely a great list but also some very "odd" discrepancies from stuff I had planted in my yard -- here's the comparison (also from zone 9B) -- the notes after each one, in brackets, are the cold damage data from my yard:

No damage at Leu

Aleurites moluccanus-CANDLENUT TREE [KILLED]

Ceiba speciosa multiple cultivars [two cultivars, 'USF' pink and a "special white" from Gardino's Nursery, severe damage -- both lost 80% of structure above the graft points but are growing back well]

Dichrostachys cinerea- SICKLEBUSH [killed back to roots but now regrowing well]

Eucalyptus deglupta- RAINBOW EUCALYPTUS [two trees -- one 12' & one 6' -- both lost all structure & were killed back to the roots but are now regrowing]

Lonchocarpus violaceus [killed back to roots but was a very small, recently planted tree -- now is slowly regrowing]

Ochna serrulata [killed back to roots but is now regrowing -- it did get frost impact and appeared to be completely dead -- it was a very late "recovery"]

Operculicarya decaryi [killed back to roots but now regrowing -- this one did not get any frost]

Pseudobombax ellipticum `Album'- WHITE SHAVING BRUSH TREE [is still completely bare but the trunk looks to be green/solid at ground level so it should grow back -- this was a very small, recently planted tree in a wide open location]

=======================================

Minor to moderate damage at Leu

Ceiba pentandra- KAPOK TREE [KILLED]

Elaeocarpus grandiflorus [KILLED]

Pachira aquatica [no damage -- planted under high live oak canopy]

Pseudobombax ellipticum- PINK SHAVING BRUSH TREE [killed to the roots -- now growing back but below graft point]

Talipariti tiliaceum `Tricolor' (Hibiscus tiliaceus) [killed to the roots but now growing back -- this was a very well-established tree that had not shown impact from previous cold weather events -- planted under oak canopy so no direct frost]

==============================================

Severe damage at Leu

Acacia collinsii- BULLHORN ACACIA [minor damage -- approx. 20% of branches lost leaves -- was exposed to frost]

Adansonia grandidieri [NO DAMAGE WHATSOEVER!!! Returned from dormancy with full re-growth from all branch tips -- and this was a tree that was planted late summer 2009]

Adansonia rubrostipa [sAME AS A. GRANDIDIERI -- no damage and also planted late summer 2009]

Uncarina grandidieri [Exposed tree was killed while tree that was under high canopy was not impacted at all]

=================================

Killed at Leu

Chloroleucon tortum (Pithecellobium)- BRAZILIAN RAIN TREE [ANOTHER ONE WITH ABSOLUTELY NO DAMAGE -- ??? -- was under high pine canopy so most likely did not get any direct frost]

Cordia sebestana- ORANGE GEIGER TREE [killed to the roots but is now growing back -- what makes this "unusual" is that this tree was transplanted in Sept. 2009 to a frost-free location so it was not well-established at all]

Ficus dammaropsis [severe damage -- eventually lost all it's leaves -- now growing back well -- under oak canopy]

Spathodea campanulata- AFRICAN TULIP TREE [killed back to roots but now growing back very well -- same thing happened last winter]

=====================================

I think a couple of your success stories are quite note-worthy -- especially the Bursera simaruba and the Ficus macrophylla (I thought both of these were true zone 10+ trees).

Also, how long were the Caesalpinia granadillo, Couroupita guianensis, and Heriteria littoralis in the ground and what temps had they survived previously? (I'm trying all these in my yard this year)

Thanks,

Tim

Edited by ThunderSRQ
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Great info and thanks for taking the time to put it together. I wasn't surprised byt the Cordia, but was very surprised with all the Ficus species (except the F. aspera). Was there no leaf loss at all on these specimens?

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Definitely a great list but also some very "odd" discrepancies from stuff I had planted in my yard -- here's the comparison (also from zone 9B) -- the notes after each one, in brackets, are the cold damage data from my yard:

No damage at Leu

Aleurites moluccanus-CANDLENUT TREE [KILLED]

Ceiba speciosa – multiple cultivars [two cultivars, 'USF' pink and a "special white" from Gardino's Nursery, severe damage -- both lost 80% of structure above the graft points but are growing back well]

Dichrostachys cinerea- SICKLEBUSH [killed back to roots but now regrowing well]

Eucalyptus deglupta- RAINBOW EUCALYPTUS [two trees -- one 12' & one 6' -- both lost all structure & were killed back to the roots but are now regrowing]

Lonchocarpus violaceus [killed back to roots but was a very small, recently planted tree -- now is slowly regrowing]

Ochna serrulata [killed back to roots but is now regrowing -- it did get frost impact and appeared to be completely dead -- it was a very late "recovery"]

Operculicarya decaryi [killed back to roots but now regrowing -- this one did not get any frost]

Pseudobombax ellipticum `Album'- WHITE SHAVING BRUSH TREE [is still completely bare but the trunk looks to be green/solid at ground level so it should grow back -- this was a very small, recently planted tree in a wide open location]

=======================================

Minor to moderate damage at Leu

Ceiba pentandra- KAPOK TREE [KILLED]

Elaeocarpus grandiflorus [KILLED]

Pachira aquatica [no damage -- planted under high live oak canopy]

Pseudobombax ellipticum- PINK SHAVING BRUSH TREE [killed to the roots -- now growing back but below graft point]

Talipariti tiliaceum `Tricolor' (Hibiscus tiliaceus) [killed to the roots but now growing back -- this was a very well-established tree that had not shown impact from previous cold weather events -- planted under oak canopy so no direct frost]

==============================================

Severe damage at Leu

Acacia collinsii- BULLHORN ACACIA [minor damage -- approx. 20% of branches lost leaves -- was exposed to frost]

Adansonia grandidieri [NO DAMAGE WHATSOEVER!!! Returned from dormancy with full re-growth from all branch tips -- and this was a tree that was planted late summer 2009]

Adansonia rubrostipa [sAME AS A. GRANDIDIERI -- no damage and also planted late summer 2009]

Uncarina grandidieri [Exposed tree was killed while tree that was under high canopy was not impacted at all]

=================================

Killed at Leu

Chloroleucon tortum (Pithecellobium)- BRAZILIAN RAIN TREE [ANOTHER ONE WITH ABSOLUTELY NO DAMAGE -- ??? -- was under high pine canopy so most likely did not get any direct frost]

Cordia sebestana- ORANGE GEIGER TREE [killed to the roots but is now growing back -- what makes this "unusual" is that this tree was transplanted in Sept. 2009 to a frost-free location so it was not well-established at all]

Ficus dammaropsis [severe damage -- eventually lost all it's leaves -- now growing back well -- under oak canopy]

Spathodea campanulata- AFRICAN TULIP TREE [killed back to roots but now growing back very well -- same thing happened last winter]

=====================================

I think a couple of your success stories are quite note-worthy -- especially the Bursera simaruba and the Ficus macrophylla (I thought both of these were true zone 10+ trees).

Also, how long were the Caesalpinia granadillo, Couroupita guianensis, and Heriteria littoralis in the ground and what temps had they survived previously? (I'm trying all these in my yard this year)

Thanks,

Tim

Tim,

Ficus macrophylla is actually quite a tough tree - its a reasonably common tree around Hobart, Tasmania where I live, and my two small ones have laughed off 4 frosts so far this winter with temperatures between 0 and 1.5C (32 - 35F). Their natural range extends a fair way down the New South Wales coast which puts them a long way outside the tropics. I would consider them to be one of the hardier species of Ficus along with F. rubignosa.

While parts of Tasmania are Zone 10 on paper (purely from a min temperature perspective), the daytime temps in winter rarely rise above 13C (55F), so its not comparable to a zone 10 in Florida....more like San Francisco!

Cheers,

Jonathan

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Tim,

Wow what odd opposite results we had for some trees !

The Caesalpinia granadillo was planted last year, in May, it was about 5ft tall. I had previously planted one before in 1997 and it was killed after the winter of 2000-2001. In 12/2000 there was a night at 27,28, and 31F. It didn't recover.

The Couroupita guianensis was planted June 2002 and was about 9ft tall. It had froze to the ground after one night at 27F in Jan. 2003

The Heriteria littoralis was planted Oct. 2003 and had nver been injured by cold but it hadn't seen below the lower 30s in that time. It was around 6ft tall.

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Great info and thanks for taking the time to put it together. I wasn't surprised byt the Cordia, but was very surprised with all the Ficus species (except the F. aspera). Was there no leaf loss at all on these specimens?

All the Ficus not injured are growing near or adjacent to the lakefront and we are on the south/SE side of the lake so its a good microclimate. The other Ficus that were injured or killed were growing in more open/less protection locations. The Ficus kingiana that was killed is the one that has been mistakenly sold as F. dammaropsis. It has proven very tender in the past as it would get foliar burn in the mid/upper 30sF. Additionally, I was recently informed this myster Ficus is probably a species of Pourouma which is in the Cecropiaceae Family.

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Tim,

Wow what odd opposite results we had for some trees !

The Caesalpinia granadillo was planted last year, in May, it was about 5ft tall. I had previously planted one before in 1997 and it was killed after the winter of 2000-2001. In 12/2000 there was a night at 27,28, and 31F. It didn't recover.

The Couroupita guianensis was planted June 2002 and was about 9ft tall. It had froze to the ground after one night at 27F in Jan. 2003

The Heriteria littoralis was planted Oct. 2003 and had nver been injured by cold but it hadn't seen below the lower 30s in that time. It was around 6ft tall.

Thanks for that input Eric -- I have "high hopes" for these amazing tree species but time will tell if I'm able to keep them alive or not. All three will be under canopy protection so they won't get any direct frost and the H. littoralis will be under the oak canopy "blanket", so it might benefit from a little extra protection (the other two are under high/sparse pine canopy in basically full sun locations).

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Both the Couroupita guianensis and Heriteria littoralis were growing under high, bright tree canopy. I will try them again.

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How did any of the Brownea, Gustavia, Lecythis or Saraca species faired?? :unsure:

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KILLED AT LEU GARDENS ...................................................... DEERFIELD BEACH ARBORETUM

Albizia saman (Samanea saman)- RAIN TREE..............................................severe die back

Bauhinia pottsii var. mollissima

Bunchosa argentea- PEANUTBUTTER FRUIT

Caesalpinia granadillo- BRIDAL VEIL TREE

Cananga odorata var. fruticosa- DWARF YLANG YLANG

Cassia emarginata

Cavanillesia platanifolia- QUIPO TREE

Chloroleucon tortum (Pithecellobium)...................................................no damage

Chrysophyllum oliviforme- SATINLEAF....................................................some defoliation

Clusia guttifera

Clusia orthoneura.......................................................................partial defoliation

Coccoloba pubescens.....................................................................no damage

Coccoloba rugosa.........................................................................no damage

Cola nitida- KOLA NUT

Commiphora africana

Cordia lutea..............................................................................partial defoliation

Cordia sebestana- GEIGER TREE.............................................................defoliation

Delonix decaryi

Delonix elata.............................................................................no damage

Delonix floribunda

Elaeophorbia drupifera

Ficus dammaropsis

Ficus kingiana

Fillicium decipiens- FERN TREE.............................................................no damage

Gnetum gnemon

Couroupita guianensis- CANNONBALL TREE.....................................................defoliation (normal)

Gyrocarpus americanus ssp. tomentosus

Heriteria littoralis- LOOKING GLASS TREE...................................................no damage in nursery container

Ixora longistipula

Kopsia fruticosa

Lagerstroemia floribunda....................................................................no damage

Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Nong Nooch Pink’

Lagerstroemia thorelli

Lagerstroemia tomentosa

Macaranga grandifolia- CORAL TREE...........................................................partial dieback

Miconia calvescens

Mutingia calabura...........................................................................no damage

Pachycormus discolor

Pimenta dioica- ALLSPICE TREE................................................................no damage

Pimenta racemosa- BAYRUM TREE................................................................no damage

Pimenta racemosa var. citrifolia- LEMON BAYRUM TREE

Plumeria pudica..............................................................................partial defoliation

Plumeria stenophylla

Pseudosamanea cubana (Albizia)

Senna surratensis- SCRAMBLED EGG TREE.........................................................no damage

Spathodea campanulata- AFRICAN TULIP TREE.....................................................defoliation minor die back

Sterculia apetala

Sterculia ceramica

Sterculia rogersii

Tabernaemontana pachysiphon

Talipariti tiliaceum ‘Tricolor’ (Hibiscus tiliaceus)- MAHOE

Terminalia catappa- TROPICAL ALMOND...........................................................partial defoliation

Thespesia lampas

Thespesia populnea- PORTIA TREE

Xanthostemon chrysanthus- GOLDEN PEMBA TREE....................................................leaf spots

200 Miles really makes a big difference.

Our Sarracas did fine with some leaf spotting. Gustavia did fine. Brownea had some defoliation. Amherstia had some protection but did fine with leaf spotting and still bloomed this April. As a matter of fact, many things bloomed for the first time this year or put on an unusually good display. The Bread Fruit got massacred.

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Jerry, what was your absolute low? Things did well down there for you !

Other than the breadfruit ! We had a breadfruit, breadnut, and a cocoa trees in pots in the greenhouse. A couple times the fuel ran out and the greenhouse got to about 38-40. The breadfruit was killed, the breadnut defoliated but came back and the cocoa had some scorched leaves.

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I forgot 2;

Conocarpus erectus, Green Buttonwood had no damage and C. erectus var. sericeus, Silver Buttonwood, was partially defoliated but has leafed back out.

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We don't have recording thermometers set up but I believe we never went below freezing. There is a public thermometer on the funeral home just a few blocks away that went to 33F. 35F was hit several times though. It was not the lowest temp that caused all the damage but the unusual length of the cold this year. On top of that, we had a very warm December which actually brought on an early spring for several trees, notably the T. impetiginosa, which bloomed for Christmas. The trees were growing like it was Spring and were surprised when Winter came roaring in.

The breadfruit was 15'-18' tall and killed to the ground. The Samanea pretty large also. It was about 30' tall and at least 50' wide. Only the central branch is sprouting suckers now. Funny thing is that I have one in my yard 3 miles to the west, that suffered no damage whatever. Mine is only about 10'-12' tall so I hypothesize that it was not tall enough to be in the freeze drying wind.

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Eric, did any of your Queen's Crape Myrtles pull through this summer? Thanks, Mike

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Eric, did any of your Queen's Crape Myrtles pull through this summer? Thanks, Mike

Of the tropical Lagerstroemia we are growing, this is what came back from the roots;

Lagerstroemia calyculata

Lagerstroemia macrocarpa

Lagerstroemia speciosa

Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Alba’

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Eric, did any of your Queen's Crape Myrtles pull through this summer? Thanks, Mike

Of the tropical Lagerstroemia we are growing, this is what came back from the roots;

Lagerstroemia calyculata

Lagerstroemia macrocarpa

Lagerstroemia speciosa

Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Alba’

Eric--

Good to see that the L. speciosa 'Alba' is still around. Hopefully some of the cuttings I took to Jesse Durko have rooted by now as well.

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I don't know how cold it got in Largo, but I yesterday saw two 20'/7m, 5" DBH Talipariti tilaceum 'Tricolor' (against building foundation, but in a hollow) at Central Park that froze to the ground. They're just coming back from the roots now.

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Great info and thanks for taking the time to put it together. I wasn't surprised byt the Cordia, but was very surprised with all the Ficus species (except the F. aspera). Was there no leaf loss at all on these specimens?

The Ficus kingiana that was killed is the one that has been mistakenly sold as F. dammaropsis. It has proven very tender in the past as it would get foliar burn in the mid/upper 30sF. Additionally, I was recently informed this myster Ficus is probably a species of Pourouma which is in the Cecropiaceae Family.

Eric--

What Pourouma species was this tree? Did you ever retry it?

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Great info and thanks for taking the time to put it together. I wasn't surprised byt the Cordia, but was very surprised with all the Ficus species (except the F. aspera). Was there no leaf loss at all on these specimens?

The Ficus kingiana that was killed is the one that has been mistakenly sold as F. dammaropsis. It has proven very tender in the past as it would get foliar burn in the mid/upper 30sF. Additionally, I was recently informed this myster Ficus is probably a species of Pourouma which is in the Cecropiaceae Family.

Eric--

What Pourouma species was this tree? Did you ever retry it?

I'm not sure what species of Pourouma it may have been. Chad at MBC had suggested that but I never heard what species.

Another possibility was Ficus casearioides.

I have never seen this plant again. Tropiflora had them several years ago as F. dammaropsis.

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